Electronics project notes/Device voltage and impedance, audio and otherwise

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This is for beginners and very much by a beginner.

It's intended to get an intuitive overview for hobbyist needs. It may get you started, but to be able to do anything remotely clever, follow a proper course or read a good book.

Some basics and reference: Volts, amps, energy, power · Ground · batteries · resistors · changing voltage · transistors · fuses · diodes · varistors · capacitors · inductors · transformers · baluns · amplifier notes · frequency generation · skin effect

And some more applied stuff:

IO: Input and output pins · wired local IO wired local-ish IO · · · · Shorter-range wireless (IR, ISM RF, RFID) · bluetooth · 802.15 (including zigbee) · 802.11 (WiFi) · cell phone

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Actuators: General actuator notes, circuit protection · Motors and servos · Solenoids

Some stuff I've messed with: Avrusb500v2 · GPS · Hilo GPRS · JY-MCU · DMX · Thermal printer ·

Audio notes: microphones · device voltage and impedance, audio and otherwise · amps and speakers · basic audio hacks · digital audio ·

Less sorted: Common terms, useful basics, soldering · Arduino and AVR notes · ESP series notes · PLL · signal reflection · pulse modulation · electricity and humans · resource metering · Microcontroller and computer platforms · SDR · Unsorted stuff

See also Category:Electronics.

Digital logic voltage levels


VCC and Gnd tend to refer to BJT transistors and TLL logic
(Vcc seems to have originally meant "the voltage common to all BJT collector pins")
VDD and VSS tend to refer to FET style ICs and boards
V+ and V- are more generic terms, seen on board power connectors

...but many of these terms have become a little fuzzy and people will mix them.

There's also the point that V-, Vss, and Gnd are what in many cases you'd call 0V and/or voltage reference and/or is the lowest voltage around -- but there are exceptions to all.

Some voltage level systems

An image search like this may be the simplest answer.

...because these visually summarize and compare many more, and some related conventions, like the voltages in LVDS communication[1].

The ones you'll probably run into most (in home DIY context):

  • 5V TTL: (Vcc is ideally between 4.75V and 5.25V)
    • VOL: 0.4V
    • VIL: 0.8V
    • VIH: 2V
    • VOH: 2.4V (can be slightly higher in some logic families(verify))
    • VCC: 5V

A more intuitive view on that is:

on inputs
low is 0V to 0.8V
high is 2V to 5V
on outputs
low is 0V to 0.4V
high is 2.4V to 5V

The difference between input and output is mainly there so that you can tie such components together, and noise voltages lower than ~0.4V introduced between them won't bother anything.

  • CMOS defines levels as a percentage of VCC, which can itself be 5, 2.5, 1.8, 1.5, 1.2V
    • VOL: 10%
    • VIL: 30%
    • VIH: 50%
    • VOH: 70%
note that 3.3V CMOS means (0.33V, 1V, 1.65V, 2.31V) and matches 5V TTL well enough
note that 5V CMOS means (0.5V, 1.5V, 2.5V, 3.5V)

0.33V, 1V, 1.65V, 2.31V) and matches 5V TTL well enough

One practical example case where this matters is controlling a 5V Led string from a 3.3V device:

Controlling 5V CMOS (like ) won't work because that's high above 70%*Vcc = ~3.5V, while controlling 5V TTL is high above ~2.4 so would be perfectly fine.

  • LVTTL: 0 to 3.3V. All threshold levels are identical to the above, and only the VOH to VCC region is smaller.

Note that the above means that 3.3 and 5V doesn't always imply the same thresholds unless you know the logic family.

Simple serial

  • RS232
space between +3..+15V, mark between -3V..-15V
yes, you still see these, mostly on non-PC devices
  • "TTL serial" is RS-232-style in communication,
0 and whatever the IC's Vcc is, usually 5V or 3.3V
common on modern boards and ICs that do serial

Seeing a DE-9 connector, you probably want to use a multimeter to check that it is oldschool RS232, and not connect it directly to the latter. Doing so may work, but will also everntually burn out the 5V side.

  • RS485
  • RS422

See also:


Analog audio voltage levels

...and impedances.

Many analog audio levels are not so well standardized, some have changed over time, some quietly. So assume each can be a factor of two off and can require a little knob twiddling at least.

  • phono input (typically on RCA plugs - which are also used for the higher line level)
order of a milliVolt, and seems to often be the not-yet-amplified output of phono cartridges
There are two common types:
Moving Magnet (MM) pickups give ~2.5mV,
Moving Coil (MC) give ~0.2mV
MC versus MM is one of those debates. Higher-end is usually MC, but quality also significantly depends on other factors.
phono pre-amps will amplify this to (typically) consumer line level (and impedance)
phono directly on line-level (or mic level) input as-is will be very too quiet (or if you manage to amplify it, very noisy)
avoid connecting non-phono and in particular line-level outputs to phono inputs, it may be possible to blow the preamp
cartridge output: varies, order of 500 Ohm or lower (verify)
phono amp imput: 47k Ohm

  • consumer microphone level (often on 3.5mm TS/TRS plugs)
on the order of ~10mV signal output (verify)
because that's the order of what ~1cm electret (FET output(verify))s give, which is what most of these are
note that the recording side will often put a DC voltage on that TRS plug, required by electret mics's internal preamp
computer sound cards have
a voltage bias for electret mics - as electrets are the typical mic you plug in
internal amplication to get it to the same level as line level. (Relevant mainly in that plugging line level into mic in will distort)
mic output - high-impedance microphones are typically cheaper, e.g. the common electret mic is often 1-2kOhm but some 10kOhm+ (verify)
PC mic in impedance: 1..10kohm (varied over time and with cards)

  • consumer line level (often on RCA or 3.5mm TRS plugs)
on the order of ~300mV (~310mV RMS, ~440mV peak, 0.9V peak-to-peak)
also sometimes known as -10dBV (mostly in situations that also do +4dBu pro levels)
but has varied somewhat over time.
I've seen amplifiers with a sensitivity of 250mV, older ones with 150mV
Some recent devices are moving to higher voltages - amps may choose to deal with up to 1V, or 2V in the case of DVD, Bluray(verify) (perhaps in imitation of pro line level?)
when the the other end is not aware, you may need to attenuate the output, and/or keep the amplification low, to avoid distortion.
line in impedance is often ~100 Ohm. Possibly higher, up to 1 kOhm
line out impedance is often ~10 kOhm. Possibly higher, up to 1 MOhm

  • professional microphone level (often on XLR3 plugs)
order of 10mV, but can vary:
Can be ~1mV, can be ~200mV (in theory more but this is atypical)
more varied designs, and possible amplification at the mic, means more variation with design and per use
(e.g. dynamic mics are somewhat intentionally low, to be able to deal with the louder things)
...so you will need that gain knob
mic output: most are (higher) in the 50..200 Ohm range, with deviations (see more notes around here)
mic preamp/mixer input: order of 1..2kOhm

On +4dBu and -10dBV

  • the standard known as +4dBu means 1.2V RMS
because 0dBu is defined as .775V, so +4dBu means (.775V * 1.585 is) 1.228V
  • similarly, -10dBV refers to consumer level (and referred to this mostly just in pro/mixed contexts)
because 0dBV is defined as 1V, so -10dBV means (1V * 0.316 is ) 0.316V

So yes, these can be seen as fancy indirect names for actual voltages. (Which, note, are not the maximum it must stay under, but the goal of a decently-strong level, Peaks will be higher, and a bit more headroom can't hurt either to deal with loud but (and also with a few specific/historical variations))

  • professional sound line level
is +4dBV, so ~1.2V typical. See notes anove.
  • instrument level has no standard, though is generally quite predictable
voltage is often somewhere between pro mic and pro line level
because it includes both guitars (which are not amplified) and e.g. synths (which are)
instruments will typically be unbalanced, TS
the 6.35mm inputs on mixers will often be balanced (TRS) because this makes sense to use for device interconnects when using these plugs.
They may also accept unbalanced (TS) (will be marked with something like 'bal or unbal'), to allow for a few other things (see also #Plugs.27s_relation_to_balanced.2Funbalanced.2C_voltage_levels.2C_etc.)
output impedance: (verify)

  • guitars are more specific case of instrument level
guitar pickup impedance is often quite high (see notes below on pickup impedance)
so a direct box (a.k.a. DI) to make it XLR is a better and easy way to put it on a longer cable to a mixer
guitar amps expect high impedance from a directly connected pickup (typically closeby)
DI boxes tend to have a thru on the input side (which is a directly wired second port) so that you can both have a guitar amp on stage (mostly as a monitor), and send its result to the mixer
a few guitar amps may have a built-in DI
in general there can be good reasons to mic the cab instead of using an output (primarily the speaker's sound)

Less standard / more varied:

  • headphone level (on 3.5mm TRS)
roughly commercial line level, but less of a standard, and can easily be a little higher.
headphone amps tend to aim to drive at least a few milliAmps into a ~30-60Ohm headphone (verify)
there are ~4Ohm headphones, but you really woudn't plug those into everything (likely to distort)
there are 250Ohm-600Ohm headphones, but these need their own preamp (the idea is that you can design for slightly better THD with less load on the amp)
  • Car audio tends to be on the order of 2V, sometimes 4V (verify)
(a headphone amp is sometimes a good cheat to connect consumer-level things to this)
  • consumer speaker wires
The voltages are proportional to the amplifier's/speaker/s ability (and relate to be).
For ~100W speakers you'll see up to a few dozen volts
a tiny desktop speaker may be <1W (verify)
speaker load is often around 8 or 4 Ohm (sometimes 2, sometimes 16)
amplifier output impedance is typically very low, say 0.1 Ohm (this is also why the whole 'match your speaker impedance exactly to your amp impedance' thing is nonsense in a literal sense -- but with lower-impedance speakers you should limit how much you turn up the volume, because the maximum sensible power output happens earlier - and above that you get both distortion (THD increases with load) and risk of damage)
  • pro speaker wires
not really a thing. Most speakers are connected by one of:
XLR: carrying typical XLR line signals to active speakers
Speakon-connected: already-amplified signal to a passive speaker
6.3mm TS: already-amplified signal to a passive speaker (Sometimes avoided, to avoid smoky mistakes)
Note these cables are different from TS instrument cables, basically in that instrument cables use a thinner core-and-shield, while TS for speakers should be two beefier cores (and shielding is pretty irrelevant)

See also:

Plugging audio where it's not quite intended

Things that won't work / things to avoid

Notes on balanced audio

Balanced in electrical terms
Some other terms you see

Plugs's relation to balanced/unbalanced, voltage levels, etc.


  • XLR3 is pro mic level, always balanced/differential, always mono.
mono, because one signal requires a differential pair.
if you want to carry stereo over XLR, use two cables (in practice, stereo is often about inter-device, and may well be two balanced 6.35mm TRS instead).

  • 6.35 mm is (typically) pro line level
6.35mm TRS
(typically) balanced/differential ~1.2V mono, and mixes may mark this as "balanced".
Tip and Ring is the pair, Sleeve is shield.
using a 3.5mm-to-6.35mm TRS converter will easily do weird things (depending on the case), usually sound quiet and weird.
(rarely) unbalanced stereo. This is an exception and will be noted.
6.35mm TS is unbalanced (i.e. non-differential) mono, often instruments.
Tip is signal, Sleeve is shield,
unpowered instruments may have rather lower voltage levels (but close enough to gain(verify))

  • mixers tend to accept both TRS balanced and TS unbalanced. If on the same socket they usually mark that (e.g. "bal/unbal")
Note that unbalanced inputs are not always isolated, so connecting unbalanced things (other than floating instuments) could create common mode issues.
contrast with...
  • mixers with stereo outputs will often want to do so on two separate balanced/TRS 6.35mm jacks
and may offer other options
  • RCA on a mixer are typically only used for phono in, or consumer in (aux)
so common mode. Ideally it's isolated (to avoid conductive ground loops)

On pickup impedance

Things that are't pure bridging

Other notes

On microphone impedance
This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

On 600 Ohms, and impedance matching


This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

Direct box, DI box, DI unit, DI. (people argue over whether it stands for direct input, direct injection, direct induction, or direct interface).


Takes a high-impedance, possibly-unbalanced signal (often roughly pro line level), e.g. from a passive instrument - probably most frequently electric guitars and electric basses.

Outputs a low-impedance pro-mic-level balanced signal, usually on an XLR plug.

In other words, usually plugs a high-impedance instrument into a (line that ends up at the) mixer.

Impedance-matching adapter / impedance-matching transformer / line matching transformer

Theory: Impedance when connecting two things

Output impedance is larger than the load's input impedance

Impedance matching

Impedance bridging

Impedance mismatches


If on a circuit board schematics - and occasionally around power/switch pins on the actual board - you see labels like:

  • VCC - positive supply, BJT
  • VEE - negative supply, BJT (may be Gnd)
  • VDD - positive supply, FET
  • VSS - negative supply, FET (may be Gnd)

See also https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IC_power-supply_pin

In more general use you might use

V+ and V-
VS for supply voltage
Schematics often mention a rail's voltage, e.g. +12V

...though people have their habits