Connectives: Copulae, Conjunctions

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TODO: (verify) all this.


Copula

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A copula (sometimes linking verb) ties a subject to some detail.


Copulae combines that subject to complete a predicate, so are themselves usually verbs (and then usually one of a very small set of commonly verbs).

In English, the most common copula is is probably 'be' (often in the form 'is'). Other common copulae include act, become, get, and seem. Various other verbs can be used in a copular way.


In English, we often tie in

Examples: ("a wolf is a canine", "it will be a wolf"
Examples: "I felt angry", "will I be tall enough?", "The weather seems good"


Verbs are not necessarily copular; auxiliary verbs are not copular, intransitive verbs aren't copular as they don't don't link to any object (consider also e.g. intransitive uses of 'be').

Interaction/disctinction between copulae and auxiliary verbs may be nontrivial? (verify)


At a semantic level, copular relations are often identity, membership to a group, and also used in generic relations ('The wolf is next to the dog', 'I am tired').

Conjunction

Polysyndeton

English

Coordinating conjunctions

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Coordinating conjuctions, a.k.a. coordinators, join things that have comparable syntactic importance.


The words most commonly used for this (though it is not the only use of various of these words) are probably:

  • and (similar things)
  • or (lists alternatives)
  • but, common and used to contrast. Not be be confused with 'but' used prepositionally
  • nor (used relatively little)
  • for can be coordinating in the sense of because (now archaic/poetic style, as in e.g. '"Ask the doctor to come, for I have a fever.'), is arguably somewhat subordinating, and is also not to be confused with for used as a preposition
  • so leads one idea to another, or is used in an as well sense
  • yet used coordinatively is not to be confused with (adverbial) use like "yet another ...


Example: In "Fish and fowl start with an f, but agriculture doesn't," the and coordinates phrases (hence no comma), and the but coordinates clauses.


Correlating conjunctions

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Subordinating conjunctions

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As a conjunction, a subordinating conjunction (a.k.a. subordinator) primarily deals with clauses.

A subordinator usually adds a (dependent, or independent(verify)) clause with the purpose of adding some type of pragmatic information or relation to the clause being added to, including conditions, causation, timing, similarity or opposition, and lines of reasoning.


For example, 'because' often adds an argument to a prior conclusion or suggestion, 'if' specifies a logical condition, 'when' and 'after' a chronological cause or condition, etc.

Common examples: when, after, if, because, although although, as, before, since, until, till, while, once, now that, as long as, whenever, though, unless, while, whereas, that, where, whether, wherever, since, when, if, even if, even though, so that, as if, as though, if only, how, than, rather than.


In practical use, 'as' is used interchangably with 'like' , which is often considered a preposition and only to introduce (propositional) phrases.


Adverbilizer

A subordinator that indicates that the dependant clause has some adverbial relation (condition, time, purpose, or location) to the main clause.

Complementizer

Relativizer

Conjunctive adverbs

References