Electronics project notes/Audio notes - microphones

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Typical use and gain / How to set reasonable levels for any given mic

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Basic notes to the above



Some (cheapish) quality-improving tips

By use

By use:

  • If you're a gamer or streamer
If you don't use facecam, any headset-with-mic that isn't much cheaper than a week's groceries should be okay
Being close means even moderately cheap ones give decent and consistent volume, and
if you position it slightly to the side of your mouth you also avoid most pops and esses.
If you do use facecam
If you don't mind a large mic near or in frame (it's perfectly accepted, almost a sign of a serious setup), there are halfway professional ones in the EUR100..200 range (If you're still testing whether you like streaming: there are some choices in the EUR50..EUR100 range that are plenty good enough to start with - but it takes more searching, because there is also a lot of crap in that range)
you could consider a lav mic
They're the ones you clip to your shirt or such,
again, research: there are crap options, but also a few decent ones that are still moderately cheap - and they serve other sort of video recording as well
it does mean a wire, though. The wireless sort are nice, but no less expensive than a desk mic.

  • If you want home recording
environment noise is often a thing, so until you're fixing that
a closer mic is often the easiest first step. Takes a little attention, but works.
a directional mic may be more convenient in the longer run, but also pricier

  • to record loud things, you don't need expensive mics
less sensitive
directional can help, but is not required
In particular for punk and the likes, you actually want less-sensitive.
Cheap dynamic mics are often perfectly okay choices for this specific case
even those 20-dollar chinese pseudo-condensers might be, if its sensitivity isn't too high
  • drumkits are a story of their own.

  • to record a room with multiple people
a recorder with two mics (like various portable recorders now have) is preferable - if it picks up directionality at all it's easier for us to hear voices as separated (we've had a lifetime of practice)
Which won't be very directional, but that's usually quite okay
  • To record soft things, single person in isolation in a quiet room
more sensitive
preferably close-ish
more directional is a good way to isolate it from others, and to push away noise

  • to record things that are sometimes quiet and sometimes loud (a.k.a. more dynamics), you are better off need somewhat fancier mics and/or more isolated setup. Think
singers that can be gentle and not (their mic technique helps, but only so much)
acoustic guitars played into microphones (in addition to or instead of their own pickups)
and more

  • acoustic foam (or DIY) sometimes just seems to be a fashion statement
what it is useful for is to reduce the amount of room reverb, which
in music gives you more options in mixing
in less serious application smay still sound more isolated and and less noisy
it's less important if you're always close to your mic - but convenient if you don't want to think about that

Choosing a mic for a purpose

More technical

Mic sensitivity

Mic directionality

Using a mic well

Mic technique

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, or tell me)

A person's microphone technique is being aware of microphone behaviour enough to work around it or with it.

This includes things like

  • avoid popping and sibilance
a pop shield (e.g. sock on a wire) a dozen centimeters away works decenty too, and means few specific instructions to give (people adopt a decent distance without instructions, even)
note that if you speaking alongside a mic, not directly into it, you may not need a pop filter and can get closer (but may or may not want to get that close, for other reasons)
pop shields and such also help avoid dampness problems, which e.g. condensers are somewhat sensitive to over the long term
  • breathing to the side when possible
  • varying distance to even out volume, e.g. when going from quiet to louder singing
yes, you can fix this later to some degree, but that's a lot of work do smoothly, so if you can teach yourself to do this almost instinctively, that saves a lot of work.
also, depending on your range of loudness, you might make some inputs clip if you don't do this
also, an automatic filter may do weird things when presented with different loudness
  • knowing the type of mic well enough to know what distance and loudness are going to give good signal(-to-noise)
  • knowing about directionality
staying in the sensitive area so that you don't unintentionally vary volume and frequency content
  • know about the proximity effect, to
avoid hearing it (volume and frequency difference ), and/or
using it to your benefit (e.g. that bassy radio voice)
recording engineers may even consider using two mics, one close and one a little further away, to give more mixing options later.

Basic mic positioning / mic technique: Just plain distance

Relevant for: everyone (from streamers to casual recorders to studios)

Too close: pops and proximity effect

Pops are sudden rushes of air from your mouth (from plosives - p and b sounds mostly). Those rushes disspiate quickly, but if you're basically eating the mic, they arrive at the capsure very efficiently. And if you're that close you also can't put anything inbetween that reduces this. You can maybe do it to the side, but would have to know about it.

The proximity effect basically points to a constructive effect that means bassy sounds work well when very close to a mic. Which you may like, for that deeper radio voice, yet it also means very little movement varies that bass, so you would have to know about it.

There is a simple and stupid way to avoid having to explain this to people: tell them to sit 10-20cm away. Or avoid having to, but putting a pop filter or something else in front. (I've seen radio stations use large foam windscreens, probably for this reason)

Too far: Consider the how intended signal strength, such as your voice, relates to environment noise.

If your environment is otherwise pretty quiet, and you want to pick up the environment (people, cats, dogs, whatnot), then you can sit at some distance so that everything is picked up.

You can absolutely amplify that, but you will necessarily be amplifying both you and that environment noise.

So consider your room being loud, or people or cars through an open window are, or the HVAC system has a low hum, your PC is loud and/or you'll be on your keyboard while recording, etc. If it's roughly as loud as you, you will hear it just as much, and there's no separating the two afterwards.

If you want to pick up just you, then yes, you can look for directional mics, but there is an even simple method: sit closer.

The louder your are (in absolute terms), the less gain you need.

The closer you are to the mic, the louder you are. That environment noise did not change.

If you turn down the gain to keep your voice output the same, the net effect is that you are only really turning down that environment noise.

Or, from another view, that you are isolating yourself better from that noise.

(...also from other people in the room. This is one reason radio stations that have guests tend to sit close to mics. And have them sit at some distance, but there's only so much room for that)

In fact, the better you can do this, the more that even cheap mics will sound pretty decent. This is one reason even cheap headset mics sometimes work quite well - you even avoid the proximity effect variations by being in a constant position, and also pops if you put it a little to the side.

If you get to play with a decent mic (negligible other noise sources such as internal noise and lower amplification noise, so the effect is clearer):

Sit at half a meter, turn up the gain until you are at decent level.
You're clear, and so is you snapping your fingers behind you.
Sit at a few cm and turn down the gain accordingly
That same snap behind you is now barely there.

(Note: in the moment you won't hear the environment noise as much, because we've had a lifetime of experience at tuning that out, and you're hearing it through the headphones at the same time as you're in the room. But if you record it and play it back, it's a lot more apparent.)

Now record both and listen to it later (because in the moment, you're good at thinking away the environment).

Listen to the difference in sound clutter and noise in the background, which probably includes your PC, and imagine a passing truck, neighbours shouting or walking down the hall, or even someone else on their own mic in the same room.


  • This is one reason that a decent headset mic actually works quite well.
  • if your environment is louder than a mic's noise specs, those noise specs barely matter anymore
particularly for free-standing mics
  • in fact, if you're recording in your bedroom without sound isolation, this puts a serious limit on how much a fancy mic even can help
in some cases you may be just as well off with a EUR30 dynamic mic or decent headset mic (just because you'll use it closer) than a sensitive EUR200+ condenser

Beyond vocals:

  • Distance on acoustic instruments
again, closer makes for better isolation
for concurrent recording of live performances, this matters
also why pickups are nice
closer may catch some odd harmonic effects, more fingering sound, and such
further than necessary just loses volume (and isolation)
  • people point mics at guitar amps, rather than using the signal going to its speaker
arguments against micing an amp:
most of the internal tone and distortion processing is also present on the output
so using a DI is smaller, and not another another mic and stand to lug around.
you have to tend to gains to get decent on-stage isolation of sound
neutral arguments:
the physical driver is probably a little bassy, so it's not quite the same as the signal, though you can mostly EQ that
arguments for micing an amp:
it's an easy way to avoid ground loop noise (when you don't have enough DI boxes to do this properly)
the setup may introduce a little compression, because physics(verify) which is e.g. nice on bass guitars

Proximity effect


Wind, shock, pop, reflection, and other noise protection

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, or tell me)

Relevant for: vocals, outside recording, preventing some environment rumble anywhere

Wind as in weather.

It's a lot of physical movement, which if it reaches the capsule directly would often overpower most other sounds.

So you want to reduce passing wind, while reducing vibrations much less. This is relatively easy to do at all, though hard to do well.

Mics tend to come with a little wind-style protection built in, because it's universally useful.

But they won't do it much because it will also reduce the amount of useful sound that arrives as well, so it's better as an option you can add only when you know you need it.

Wind and people:

Whistling can also be windy, if you do it with a mic straight in font of your mouth.

One vocal-specific issue is pop, the sudden ejections of wind from your mouth that you get from plosives like p, b, and others. When this easily reaches the capsule, it's the same as the wind problem, though a lot more instantaneous.

Another vocal problem is sibilance, the ess sounds (s, t, ch) that sound harsh - and easily louder than other parts of the vocals.

This one's harder than pop, in part because it's less directional. It's a good idea to record less of it to start with.

Shock refers to hitting whatever the mic is standing on / handing by (and anything hard-coupled enough, like your desk and keyboard, your floor and your foot-tapping and the passing truck and neighbours rumbling or walking down the hall). If the mic is mounted to avoids hard coupling, most of that sound won't make it in via this route.

Reflection here refers to the fact you probably have multiple walls nearby, meaning you record direct and reflected sound - effectively a little reverb on everything. For live use this isn't much of an issue (it just sounds like a person in a room, which we are used to hearing), yet lessening this reflection gives you more leeway and options when mixing later. (Note also that this can be less relevant when you're closer to the mic)

Solutions designs, and products

  • Pointing the mic at your mouth from the side
Helps: vocal pops
But: positioning of yourself now has a little more effect on frequency content (and volume, due to the pickup shape),

so it's often easier (and a little more controlled) to explain and use pop filters.

  • Pop filter are primarily for reducing pop in vocal use.
Helps: vocal pops
It's typically just any thin piece of fabric suspended in front of the mic.
One design is a few nylon layers to reduce wind speed - which is easy enough to DIY with some coathangers and pantyhose.

are a specific foam stuck over all the inlet of a microphone (which for many mic designs works out as blobs, though longer for e.g. shotgun mics).
Helps: vocal pops, wind
These work against gentle wind, and also act as a pop filter.
They are not the best at either, but decent, cheap, and typically supplied with microphones.

are furry variants of windscreens, that tend to be be a little better at reducing wind than just foam
Helps: wind, vocal pops
They cost a little more, and come with some practical details like fluff varying with air moisture, and that you may have to clean them more often.
  • Softies (initially a brand name, but later a much more generic one)
is a vaguer term but frequently refers to a larger synthetic-fur thing large enough you can stick various microphones's business end in them.
Helps: wind, vocal pops
Helps: wind, vocal pops
similar to softies, but are larger, and will often contain the entire mic with a a bit more air between microphone and boundary, and usually use a mesh material (regularly with thin foam on the inside) to stop rushing air.
Seen e.g. on boom mics. They work better, but are heavier.
These may also have a removable synthetic fur cover. (This seems to be where the 'dead cat' name originated)

  • Shock mounts are elastic suspensions, which reduce physically coupled rumble.
Helps: shock, rumble
Basic versions are easy enough to improvise from, say, elastic bands. The characteristics of what frequencies they work best for varies, but halfway decent for no effort
Things like tension do matter matter to how well they work a little, and studios and other permanent setups will probably invest in something less fiddly and more durable.

Reflection filter is often a acoustic foam opposing the sound source, creating a small stall.

The intent is to control and reduce reflections from hard surfaces that may be in that direction, and in studios can help isolate the source from other sources somewhat.

Mostly for vocal work, though note that it does only half the job (at best) that e.g. a vocal booth would.

Mic switches

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Low cut / roll-off (bent-line symbol) - removes low frequencies with a filter

when recording vocals, frequencies below 50 or 100Hz or so are likely to be nothing but rumble (also for home use; think passing trucks), and maybe some wind
knee frequency varies. Some mics have two positions for this, varying knee frequency
can't be changed, so doing this filter in an EQ down the line is sometimes more useful (and largely the same)

Pad switch - basically just lowers amount of signal - attenuation on the order of 5dB, 10dB or 20dB

useful when the input is structurally very loud, e.g. putting mics on a guitar cab.
You generally don't want this for softer instruments, softer vocals
for very loud things it's better to do this in the mic (to avoid it getting overloaded) than later (a loud but perfectly in-range signal can also be turned down later)
There are sometimes also pads down the line, which is more about gain staging - comparable levels and e.g. not forcing sliders/knobs down to their first 5%
(not directly related: pad is also sensible to have on DIs, for very hot signals)

Other mic tools

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Fancier mic positioning

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Stereo/soundstage effects

Relevant for: fancier serious instrument recording, studios

...and arguably also e.g. recording groups of voices. It turns out that e.g. the hand-held recorders with two mics on front tend to record a binaural-like effect that we humans can use well to isolate sources, making it easier to listen to and e.g. transcribe.

These are mostly techniques that let you get a spacious recording of something live, without synthesizing that effect in mixing.

  • XY pair
Two directional microphones, inlets/capsules very close, at a 90 degrees angle
proxmity means no time-of-arrival ambiguity, (so) stereo image comes from directional pressure differences.
less impression of space/depth than most other setups, but more stable
no issues mixing down to mono
small amount of high frequency loss in the plane between the mics, which is why they are usually placed above each other (means this rejection is above/below, not left/right)
if the mics touch, this may ruin the effect (or the recording, if there's rattling)
  • Blumlein pair
XY pair using bidirectional microphones
tends to give a nicely realistic soundstage

  • AB pair
Two omnidirectional microphones in parallel, some space apart
tweaking the distance changes amount of directionality that is picked up (verify)
a little bassier, because omnidirectional mics tend to be (verify)
Not ideal to mix to mono by adding the two, as that tends to show comb-filter-like effects. Yet often, using just one channel is perfectly fine.
  • Jecklin disk
AB, at 36cm distance, and with a disk inbetween that increases the apparent separation
Easier to mix to mono because of side rejection (side tends to arrive more in one mic)

  • near coincident are setups with effects between XY and AB, usually decent ambient and decent directional, and most are named for institutions that thought up each specific setup, like ORTF (French television), NOS (Dutch television), DIN (German standardization)
two cardoid mics pointed outwards, 110 degree angle between them, capsules 17cm apart (roughly a head's width)
NOS: cardoid, 90 degree, 30cm
DIN: cardoid, 90 degree, 20cm

  • Decca tree

  • Mid/Side
three-mic setup, often with (bi)directional to the left and right, cardioid or omni facing front
Outputs are generally:
Mid as-is
Left = Mid + Side
Right = Mid − Side
(in part because you can separate out the mid and side channels from just that)
If recorded separately, this allows depth tweaking while mixing
mixing to mono: just use the mid channel

Related tricks

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Relevant for: stage, studios

Differential microphone is a noice-canceling arrangement useful in live setups on smaller stages, where crowds and things like guitar amps are nearby:

use two identical microphones, one trained on the sound you want, the other not, and probably nearby each other
invert one (i.e. reverse phase) (fancier consoles tend to allow this in the mixer)
anything that shows up equally at both mics is likelier to cancel out
which is likely to include lowish frequency crowd noise, guitar amp bleed, drums, backline speakers, etc.
anything that shows up at one mic (e.g. the singer) barely so.
sometimes leads to some odd phasing effects, though(verify)

Not to be confused with differential microphone arrays, which use beamforming from multiple mics to isolate in a direction, thereby suppressing background noise and some reverb.

More practical

Microphone type

Which type for which use

"I'm a streamer, ..."

"...what's the cheapest good mic?"

"...are USB mics any good?"

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, or tell me)


there are now moderately decent ones for not too much money, that may suit your use well
but there are also shitty ones, so do your research.

Mics with USB connections have always existed, but were usually things of convenience, not quality.

This in part because for a long time this fell in a small niche, somewhere inbetween "absolutely anything I strap on my face will do", and "I want to sound sultry and smooth and surely throwing money at professional gear is the way", which started getting less niche when vlogging and streaming became more of a thing, and even then only slowly.

With increasing needs to get quality (and the convenience of not having to read up on pro gear), there are more and more USB mics of decent quality, sensitivity, and noise levels.

So there are now some serious prosumer choices.

And also shit, so check reviews and do tests where you can.

...and remember about other effects (e.g. poor positioning can make any mic sound bad, and good positioning can make cheap mics sound a little better)

USB mics are audio interface and microphone in one.

This is smaller and less fuss and a little cheaper if you only ever need one mic, which includes most streamers.
particularly if you can can spend something like 100 EUR/USD in total on audio and have it be fairly good.
...and at the same time feels inflexible to professionals who would rather have an audio interface they can plug any of their collection of mics into, and may talk about upgrade paths (upgrading one without replacing the entire thing).

Active noise reduction

"...can I get an off-screen mic?"

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, or tell me)

tl;dr: Yes, but it may not be worth it.

Putting a mic closer to your mouth is the easiest way to keep the amplification lower, which is the easiest way to have it be stronger than environment noise.

That's mostly sound physics, that you cannot change with a different mic.

Two footnotes to that:

  • a directional mic essentially gives you stronger signal in one direction.
It means you might be a few db louder than the room sound. And not a lot more than that, again because physics
  • the mic's internal electronic noise, which is part of type and design quality

All that aside, you may like your mouth moderately close, for the warmer sound of having some proximity effect (more lower frequencies).

The above roughly why

decent quality vocal mic tend to be on screen.
boom mics on movie sets (directional) are still specifically held as close as possible without being in frame.
headphones with a built-in mic, even when cheap, can actually sound quite decent
they are close, meaning they can be cheap omnidirectional and still have your voice be stronger than environment noise (that said, other noise in the path is less predictable)
also, they are at a stable distance (consistent proximity effect), and can often be positioned to the side (don't have to think about pops and esses)
you see a lot of lav mics (the things you pin to a shirt) in things like interviews - it's closeish and stable
their downside is the wire (nice-quality wireless means expensive), and you need to learn to place them, because rubbing against them is very audible.

If you insist on an out-of-shot mic:

consider doing facecam rather than room cam - it means "just out of shot" is closer.
a directional mic, probably a shotgun mics (e.g. those specific for camcorders)
...but you can't buy away physics, so it only goes so far, and don't expect very much spending under 100-200EUR/USD (and you can get a somewhat nicer vocal mic for that price).
above 200 you start taking pro mics, like NTG2, which may also be directional enough to reduce room characteristics

Also, if your goal is actually an unobtrusive mic, you might also consider a halfway-decent lav. But those are some work on positioning, thinking about movement noise, and are still wired (wireless lavs are a bunch more expensive).

More technical

Sensitivity, noise performance, and some further stuff that influences quality (specs)

Mic design and specs

SNR in use

Directional behaviour

Directionality means a microphone picks up sound coming from some directions much more than from others.

More directional mics make it easier to train a mic one a specific sound source , to isolate some environment noise (e.g. the PC opposite you, though not the rumbling truck outside), to get somewhat isolated recordings when you're playing together (less need to record separately), (therefore) more mixing choices later, avoid feedback on stage (with stage monitors), to have speakers on their own mics in a radio studio or podcast even when they're fairly close together, and more.


  • a bunch of these things are also served by putting mics closer (and dialing down the amplification), but with some footnotes.
  • frequency response will differ between directions
...which is one reason why, in well-controlled environments, omnidirectional designs can be useful - they sound more consistent and neutral. And why they sometimes have use in mixes.
  • even highly directional designs (shotgun, parabolic) rarely give more than 20dB of reak difference between what they focus on and what they don't.
Depending on your needs, this may be more than enough (e.g. when mics are closer) - or disappointing when your expectations came from spy movies and mic cost.

There are a bunch of words that are shorthands for typical shapes on the polar chart [1].

These include:

  • omnidirectional, a.k.a. non-directional
sound from all directions (more or less) equally.
any mic that does not use cavities or surfaces tends to be relatively omnidirectional.
truly omnidirectional response is actually hard, more so when it has to do so for higher frequencies well (but there is rarely a need for such purism)
Prone to feedback.
  • Subcardoid
Like cardoid, but without the rear rejection.
You could think of it as omnidirectional that was sort of biased to one direction after all.
More prone to feedback
  • Cardioid
The polar plot is shaped roughly like a heart, hence the name.
Fairly directional, which makes it useful for
voices, in that it's often close to and pointed at a person
stages in general, because lower sensitivity at the back lessens the likelines of feedback
  • Supercardoid
narrower than basic cardoid, effectively making it more directional towards the front
but also adds pickup directly behind
  • Hypercardoid
Basically the superlative of supercardoid: reject side better, pick up more in front - and directly behind.
...to the point they resemble bidirectional a bit.

  • Bi-directional (figure eight)
roughly equal pickup on one side and the opposite
also meaning better side rejection than most other things


  • shotgun - actually a mic design, but it turns out to have a relatively unique polar patterns
...and vary between different designs. so this means "look closer"
but probably in the area of supercardoid, sometimes figure-eight-like (but more focus on one side, and rejects side less)
  • Parabolic
The nature of a parabola is that parallel incoming things are focused on one spot (or, in the other direction, things originating from that one spot end up sent out in parallel beams)
this makes it useful for dish microphones. (and for many non-sound things. Consider solar cooking, spot lighting, dish antennae)
the fact that higher frequencies are more directional is pretty clear in this design
below 2kHz you get relatively poor pickup. A larger dish helps, but only so much. (Apparently a parabola with a shorter focal length also helps(verify))
  • Laser
Laser mics aren't sound transducers themselves. They reads the vibrations off a remote surface,
which often makes it an extremely directonal pickup -- of a there-relatively-omnidirectional surface. So categorize how you prefer.

Surface microphones

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, or tell me)

A surface microphone is one made to be attached to a surface, and mostly picks up that surface vibrations, rather than air vibrations.

This particularly makes sense for instruments.

However a surface microphone picks up most things more or less equally, and it is surprising how much you don't actually want that for many uses, or at least have to now think about things like handling that instrument.

They are often piezo elements, regularly with a simple amplifier circuit. See Electronic music - pickups.

On preamps


Powering mics

Note that a lot of mics don't need power. Of the microphones in common use, it is primarily condensers that do.


T-powering / 12T / AB powering / Tonaderspeisung / DIN 45595

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, or tell me)

Puts 12V DC between XLR pins 2 and 3 (the differential pair).

Note: This is not phantom.


  • Avoids shield-related issues


  • accidentally mixing this with (the now typical) phantom-power gear can damage things. Since phantom is now common, that's sort of bad.
  • any power impurity is on the same wires as the audio signal, and therefore audible

See also:

Phantom power / P48 / IEC 61938 / DIN 45596

Phantom power can supply power to a mic via the XLR cable that also carries audio.

Audio interfaces with XLR inputs typically supply phantom on it.

Mixer panels can regularly let you enable phantom power on all their inputs.

Many active DI boxes can also use it, often optionally.

Passive DI boxes do not.

Anything non-XLR does not.


  • Lets you supply power to the mics that need it (condensers and more) without needing extra wiring, replacing batteries, etc.
mics that support it send a stronger signal, so the net effect is that you can use longer cables before noise is relevant.

Keep in mind:

  • For mics that don't support it, it makes no difference
  • mics that require phantom power will probably barely work without it, or not work at all
most notably condenser mics
  • There are a few reasons to keep phantom power supply turned off until you know you need it, roughly:
the pin 1 problem in interconnects (probably the largest reason)
Earth lift, sometimes necessary to work around the pin 1 problem, will also disconnect phantom power
applying this power on some unbalanced microphone designs (most aren't) can be trouble
and some other details, see e.g. [2]
Generally none of these are an issue, since you'll generally only plug balanced mics (or mics via DI boxes) into XLR-with-phantom sockets - but there is the odd case where you can introduce noise or even damage (mostly in stage settings), so it's something you want to eventually know

Technical side:

Phantom power is

  • a voltage placed equally on pins 2 and 3
which means that the receiving side (the differential amplifier on the audio lines) shouldn't see it on the signal at all (hence 'Phantom'), as as power should flow equally through both balanced-pair wires.
  • ...and using shield (pin 1) is now used ground for this circuit.

Using shield as ground is not advisable in general, but primarily because it is a bad idea when using XLR for interconnects (see also the Pin 1 problem - and you want to turn phantom off on any XLR inputs used as interconnects), yet is fine on inputs that are a single microphone (which is floating/isolated).

On DI boxes there are some extra footnotes (mostly to their design(verify)).

  • Voltage:
Technically three variants: 48V, 12V, and later 24V
in practice typically 48V
the 48V is purely for historical reasons, and actually somewhat impractical (9..12V is enough for almost all circuits, and microphones actually have to step it down to that)
  • Current:
early phantom supplies might only supply 2mA, enough for a single FET
modern phantom supplies should be capable of 10mA-15mA, and modern mics usually use something like ~5mA

See also:

  • http://en.wikiaudio.org/Phantom_power
  • mention in IEC 61938 (1993) ("Multimedia systems - Guide to the recommended characteristics of analogue interfaces to achieve interoperability")
  • mention in DIN 45596 (1973, 1981)

Plug-in power / Bias voltage

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, or tell me)

In practice, bias voltage is a mostly a thing on mics connected via 3.5mm TRS, like PCs, video cameras, DSLR, phones, voice recorders, minidisc)

...because that context usually means electret mics, and some voltage is required for (the FET typically in) most electrets to function.

Bias voltage is mostly ignored by 3.5mm mics that don't use it.

The bias is often roughly ~2-3V DC, but this has varied with designs and over time.

Note that you can test for the presence of DC bias with a plain LED (...with known low voltage forward bias).

Wiring microphones

Things to keep in mind:

On impedance

See Electronics_project_notes/Audio_notes_-_device_voltage_and_impedance#On_microphone_impedance

But basically: most pro mics are order of 200 ohm, because they impedance-bridge with approximately 1.2kOhm on the mixer side.

Higher or lower mic impedance and higher or lower amp impedance both exist. These are mostly special cases, and special uses you'll probably know about.

If either side's impedance is switchable, that mostly changes the amount of load, which mostly just bends the frequency response a little.

Offset or rectify


Isolation, DC removal

Types of microphone - workings

Dynamic microphone


Electret microphone

Circuit use

Related hacking

Ribbon mic


Piezo microphone

Historic or exotic




Fiber optic


Some more glossary