Electronic music - audio effects

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The physical and human spects dealing with audio, video, and images

Vision and color perception: objectively describing color · the eyes and the brain · physics, numbers, and (non)linearity · color spaces · references, links, and unsorted stuff

Image: file formats · noise reduction · halftoning, dithering · illuminant correction · Image descriptors · Reverse image search · image feature and contour detection · OCR · Image - unsorted

Video: format notes · encoding notes · On display speed

Audio physics and physiology: Basic sound physics · Human hearing, psychoacoustics · Descriptions used for sound and music

Noise stuff: Stray signals and noise · sound-related noise names · electronic non-coupled noise names · electronic coupled noise · ground loop · strategies to avoid coupled noise · Sampling, reproduction, and transmission distortions · (tape) noise reduction

Digital sound and processing: capture, storage, reproduction · on APIs (and latency) · programming and codescs · some glossary · Audio and signal processing - unsorted stuff

Music electronics: device voltage and impedance, audio and otherwise · amps and speakers · basic audio hacks · Simple ADCs and DACs · digital audio · multichannel and surround
On the stage side: microphones · studio and stage notes · Effects · sync

Electronic music: Some history, ways of making noises · Gaming synth

Modular synth (eurorack, mostly): sync · power supply · formats (physical, interconnects)

Unsorted: Visuals DIY · Signal analysis, modeling, processing (some audio, some more generic) · Music fingerprinting and identification

For more, see Category:Audio, video, images

Noise gate


Multiband compressor

Distortion, overdrive, fuzz, etc.

Delays and reverb

Some relevant theory

Flanger, Chorus


Echo and Delay

Tape delay

Delay DIY

BDD and Digital delay DIY
DIY Spring reverb

See also

spring reverb tank coding

Physically, tanks are mostly a small voice coil, often two or three somewhat different springs, and a pickup coil (or sometimes piezo).

Impedance-wise, consider that it's basically small speaker and small pickup.

Impedances will vary between types; input between a few Ohms and maybe a kOhm, output a few kOhms. You can tell from the code (accutronics started, most follow).


number: usually one of:
for Accutronics:
1: 9.25" (~23.5cm), 2 springs
4: 16.25" (~41.3cm), 2 springs
8: 9.25", 3 springs
9: 16.25", 3 springs
for Belton:
2: 2 springs
3: 3 springs
letter: input impedance at 1kHz (ranging from 8 Ohm to ~2kOhm)
A: 8 Ohm for Type 1&4, 10 for Type 8&9
B: 150 Ohm for Type 1&4, 190 Ohm for Type 8&9
C: 200 Ohm for Type 1&4, 240 Ohm for Type 8&9
D: 250 Ohm for Type 1&4, 310 Ohm Ohm for Type 8&9
E: 600 Ohm for Type 1&4, 800 Ohm for Type 8&9
F: 1.4 kOhm for Type 1&4, 1.925 kOhm for Type 8&9
letter: output impedance at 1kHz
For Accutronics:
A: 500 Ohms for Type 1&4, 600 Ohms for Type 8&9
B: 2250 Ohms for Type 1&4, 2575 Ohms for Type 8&9
C: 10000 Ohms for Type 1&4, 12000 Ohms for Type 8&9
For Belton:
A: 500 Ohms for Type 1&4, 600 Ohms for Type 8&9
B: 2250 Ohms for Type 1&4, 2575 Ohms for Type 8&9
C: 4000 Ohms for Type 1&4, 4000 Ohms for Type 8&9
D: 10000 Ohms for Type 1&4, 12000 Ohms for Type 8&9
number: decay time
1: Short, (~1 to 2 sec)
2: Medium (~2 to 3 sec)
3: Long (~3 to 4 sec)
letter: grounding/shielding - mainly about ground loops (so buy to match what you're replacing, though various cases are fixable afterwards)
A: input connected to chassis, output connected to chassis
B: input connected to chassis, output isolated
C: input isolated, output connected to chassis
D: both input and output isolated
number: travel lock (now rare, meaning it's usually 1)
letter: mounting plane - basically which side is up
A = Open Side Up
B = Open Side Down
C = Connectors Up
D = Connectors Down
E = Input Up
F = Output Up
this is mostly about which direction the springs are off-center to avoid hitting things, and best distance to the magnets? (verify)

If replacing one in an amp, you probably want to match the impedance, grounding, and mounting plane. And size if larger won't fit. You have some leeway in spring amount and decay and size, if you want to experiment.

See also:

Repurposing a floppy drive as sampler or tape-style delay


Talk box

A talk box is just a box with a speaker, and a hose that puts that sound in your mouth.

Your mouth effectively makes vowel-like resonances, to be picked up by your vocal mic. Seems to have been mainly used for guitars.


Bit crusher



Phase shifter

Pitch shifter, frequency shifter


Modulation alters a signal waveform using a carrier waveform.




Ring modulation

Phase modulation