Some understanding of memory hardware

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The lower-level parts of computers

General: Computer power consumption · Computer noises

Memory: Some understanding of memory hardware · CPU cache · Flash memory · Virtual memory · Memory mapped IO and files · RAM disk · Memory limits on 32-bit and 64-bit machines

Related: Network wiring notes - Power over Ethernet · 19" rack sizes

Unsorted: GPU, GPGPU, OpenCL, CUDA notes · Computer booting

"What Every Programmer Should Know About Memory" is a good overview of memory architectures, RAM types, reasons bandwidth and access speeds vary.

RAM types

This article/section is a stub — some half-sorted notes, not necessarily checked, not necessarily correct. Feel free to ignore, or tell me about it.

DRAM - Dynamic RAM

lower component count per cell than most (transistor+capacitor mainly), so high-density and cheaper per storage size
yet capacitor leakage means it forgets its state, so this has to be refreshed regularly,
also meaning you need a DRAM controller, more complexity (not something you'd DIY), and higher latency than some
(...some latency is less of an issue when you have multiple chips)
this or a variant is typical as main RAM, due to low cost per bit

SDRAM - Synchronous DRAM - is mostly a practical design consideration

...that of coordinating the DRAM via an external clock signal (previous DRAM was asynchronous, manipulating state as soon as lines changed)
This allows the interface to that RAM to be a predictable state machine, which allows easier buffering, and easier interleaving of internal banks
which makes higher data rates a bunch simpler (though not necessarily lower latency)
DDR doubled busrate by widening the (minimum) units they read/write (double that of SDR), which they can do from single DRAM bank(verify)
similarly, DDR2 is 4x larger units than SDR and DDR3 is 8x larger units than SDR
DDR4 uses the same width as DDR3, instead doubling the bus rate by interleaving from banks
unrelated to latency, it's just that the bus frequency also increased over time.

SRAM - Static RAM

Has a higher component count per cell (6 transistors) than e.g. DRAM
Retains state as long as power is applied to the chip, no need for refresh, also making it a little lower-latency
no external controller, so simpler to use
the higher component count per cell makes it more expensive per storage size
e.g used in caches, due to speed, and acceptable cost for lower amounts

PSRAM - PseudoStatic RAM

A design tradeoff, somewhere between SRAM and DRAM
its like DRAM with built-in refresh, so functionally it's as "don't think about it" as SRAM
(yes, DRAM technically can have built-in refresh, but that's often points a sleep mode that retains state without requiring an active DRAM controller, not something for active use)
it's slower than DRAM, and cheaper than SRAM
SRAM makes sense for internal RAM, PSRAM makes sense for extended RAM in situations DRAM is not necessary

Non-volatile RAM

While the concept of Random Access Memory (RAM) only tells you that you can access any part of it with comparable ease (contasted with e.g. tape storage, where more distance meant more time, so more storage meant more time)...

...we tend to think about RAM as volatile, only useful as an intermediate scratchpad between storage and use, and will lose its contents as soon as it is unpowered. Probably because the commonly chosen designs have that property.

Yet there are various designs that are both easily accessible and keep their state.

And there is a gliding scale of various properties in that area as well.

We may well call it NVM (non-volatile memory) when we haven't yet gotten to some more specific properties, like how often we may read or write, or how difficult that is.

Say, some variants of EEPROM aren't the easiest to deal with. We like Flash more, even though it's basically a development from EEPROM. But both wear out.

NVRAM on the other hand tends to be easier, more reisable, like FRAM, MRAM, and PRAM, or nvSRAM or even BBSRAM.

nvSRAM - SRAM and EEPROM stuck on the same chip.

seems intended as a practical improvement on BBSRAM
and/or a "access common stuff quickly, occasionally write a chunk to EEPROM" style of data logging, black boxes, that sort of thing

BBSRAM - Battery Backed SRAM

basically just SRAM alongside a lithium battery, so that it'll live a good while
is sort of cheating, but usefully so.

FRAM - Ferroelectric RAM

functions more like flash, also limited in amount of use (but with many more cycles)
read process is destructive (like e.g DRAM), so you need a write-after-read to keep data around
so it's great for things like round-robin logging (which would be pretty bad for Flash)


DRAM stick types

This article/section is a stub — some half-sorted notes, not necessarily checked, not necessarily correct. Feel free to ignore, or tell me about it.

ECC RAM ('Error correction code')

can detect many (and correct some) hardware errors in RAM
The rate of of bit-flips is low, but will happen. If your computations or data are very important to you, you want ECC rather than the regular, non-ECC type.
See also:
DRAM Errors in the Wild: A Large-Scale Field Study

Registered RAM (sometimes buffered RAM) basically places a buffer on the DRAM modules (register as in hardware register)

offloads some electrical load from the main controller onto these buffers, making it easier to have designs more stably connect more individual memory sticks/chips. a small latency hit
typical in servers, because they can accept more sticks
Must be supported by the memory controller, which means it is a motherboard design choice to go for registered RAM or not
pricier (more electronics, fewer units sold)
because of this correlation with server use, most registered RAM is specifically registered ECC RAM
yet there is also unregistered ECC, and registered non-ECC, which can be good options on specific designs of simpler servers and beefy workstations.
sometimes called RDIMM -- in the same context UDIMM is used to refer to unbuffered

FB-DIMM, Fully Buffered DIMM

same intent as registered RAM - more stable sticks on one controller
the buffer is now between stick and controller [1] rather than on the stick
physically different pinout/notching

SO-DIMM (Small Outline DIMM)

Physically more compact. Used in laptops, some networking hardware, some Mini-ITX

EPP and XMP (Enhanced Performance Profile, Extreme Memory Profiles)

basically, one-click overclocking for RAM, by storing overclocked timing profiles
so you can configure faster timings (and Vdimm and such) according to the modules, rather than your trial and error
normally, memory timing is configured according to a table in the SPD, which are JEDEC-approved ratings and typically conservative.
EPP and XMP basically means running them as fast as they could go (and typically higher voltage)

In any case, the type of memory must be supported by the memory controller

DDR2/3/4 - physically won't fit
Note that while some controllers (e.g. those in CPUs) support two generations, a motherboard will typically have just one type of memory socket
registered or not
ECC or not

Historically, RAM controllers were a thing on the motherboard near the CPU, while there are now various cases where the controller is on the CPU.

More on...

DRAM versus SRAM

This article/section is a stub — some half-sorted notes, not necessarily checked, not necessarily correct. Feel free to ignore, or tell me about it.


Buffered/registered RAM

EPROM, EEPROM, and variants

PROM is Programmable ROM

can be written exactly once

EPROM is Erasable Programmable ROM.

often implies UV-EEPROM, erased with UV shone through a quartz window.

EEPROM's extra E means Electrically Erasable

meaning it's now a command.
early EEPROM read, wrote, and erased (verify) a single byte at a time. Modern EEPROM can work in larger chunks.
you only get a limited amount of erases (much like Flash. Flash is arguably just an evolution of EEPROM)

Flash memory (intro)

This article/section is a stub — some half-sorted notes, not necessarily checked, not necessarily correct. Feel free to ignore, or tell me about it.

Flash, eMMC, UFS