DIY, craft, materials, and such / Household and DIY substances
- 1 Glues and sealants
- 2 Brick, mortar, 'n' stuff
- 3 Household and DIY substances
- 4 Oils and waxes
- 5 Grease and lubricant
- 6 WD40
- 7 Loctite
- 8 Materials
- 8.1 Some plastics / polymers
- 8.2 Foams and other fillers
- 8.2.1 Ratings
- 8.2.2 Open cell structure foams
- 8.2.3 Closed-cell foams
- 8.2.4 Purposes
- 8.2.5 Unsorted
- 8.3 Wood
- 8.3.1 Engineered wood
- 126.96.36.199 Plywood
- 188.8.131.52 Underlayment
- 184.108.40.206 Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
- 220.127.116.11 structural composite lumber
- 18.104.22.168 Fiberboard
- 22.214.171.124 Parallel-strand lumber
- 126.96.36.199 Glued laminated timber
- 188.8.131.52 High-Pressure Laminate
- 184.108.40.206 Stamina wood
- 8.3.2 Translations
- 8.3.3 Semi-sorted
- 8.3.1 Engineered wood
- 8.4 Walls and bricks
Glues and sealants
|This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, or tell me)|
Wood glue, white glue, carpenter's glue, school glue and Elmer's glue (in the US), is based on polyvinyl acetate (PVA)
- while PVA is the main ingredient, products vary in additives, so will vary in viscosity, strength, odor, and such
- useful for porous materials
- is slightly flexible itself
- is nicer to paper and cloth than many other glues (polymer or otherwise), because it is non-acidic, or only mildly (just enough to help drive the reaction)
- pretty cheap per volume
Superglue, crazy glue and a few other product names is typically cyanoacrylate, which is fast and works on quite a few types of surface (e.g. practical enough to use on metal). Note that it reacts exothermically with cotton so is typically a bad idea to let near clothing.
There are a few accelerants, some of which are very cheap and simple (such as baking soda, and steam), to some fancier chemical ones that will often make it be thinner and dry more cleanly.
(cleaner seems to mean reacting faster, which gives it less time to vaporize and react with airborne moisture - this is the main reason you get a white-ish sheen near drying CA)
'Epoxy' is a general term, and can apply to many variations, most of which are thermosetting polymers that cure when mixed with a catalyst, and generally then very solid, so works as a glue on anything it sticks to. Also used by itself e.g. as floors or floor coatings, as it has a fairly durable surface.
Polyurethane is also used as a water resistant glue,
- used in things like woodworking and bookbinding
Names involving 'cement' are often vague:
'Rubber cement' could refer fairly generally to polymers, though is regularly latex mixed with a solvent(verify)). The drying process is actually the evaporation of the solvent, leaving the somewhat flexible polymer behind.
Plastic cement can refer to:
- a specific cement (in the masonry cement sense)
- one of a few (organic) solvents, probably one of:
- dichloromethane, a solvent used to melt together plastics
- tetrahydrofuran, a solvent that is the main part of PVC solvent a.k.a. PVC glue.
- butanone, a widely used solvent including in some glues
Poly Cement can refer to
- cements that uses polymers instead of lime
- e.g. polyurethane cement?(verify)
- a solvent - basically, see plastic cement
- polystyrene cement, a.k.a. plastic model glue, seems to be this (verify)
Descriptions / typologies
Contact glue describes glues that are applied to both surfaces, dry separately for some time (often between seconds to minutes, up to maybe a day, depending on product and purpose), then be pressed together hard.
While it's a category, they are often specifically neoprene solutions(verify), and you may mostly know them by a specific brand.
Contact glue is practical when gluing larger areas, where the large contact area means the combined strength is plenty even in cases it is not a strong bond.
Hot glue are  thermoplastics] (rather than thermosetters), meaning they can be molten and molded later.
The DIY Hot-melt glue is typically EVA, though there are others. These sticks melt at ~110C, high-temp sticks at ~190C. (cheap glue guns not temperature-controlled very well, meaning that won't know whether a DIY variant heats to, say, ~120C or ~170C)
Brick, mortar, 'n' stuff
Cement: (nl: Cement)
- Ingredients: mostly oxides of calcium or silicon, plus silicates(verify)
- cement is a binder that hardens. It is so fine that it only an ingredient of something bulkier
- ...although cement+water is sometimes used on walls and floors to get better adherence with the mortar added immediately after
- (and some mixes that use cement can also add specific binding agent)
- two broad classes:
- hydraulic cement that hardens in reaction to water
- non-hydraulic cement that hardens in reaction to CO2
- Portland cement is the most common mix used in building (and is hydraulic)
- there are many others used in specific uses, like Masonry cement, others
Mortar: (nl: Mortel, specie)
- Ingredients: cement, sand, sometimes lime
- relatively fine
- used for masonry, tiling, plastering, and more
- probably more sand in mortar for masonry than in tiling
Grout: (nl: Grout)
- Ingredients: water, cement, and sand
- grout is thinner than mortar, and flows into gaps
- Tiling grout used to finish tiling
- Structural grout used to bond steel to masonry
Concrete: (nl: Beton)
- Ingredients: (portland) cement, sand, large aggregate (gravel/rocks)
- Ingredients: binder, smaller aggregate
- may be relatively find or moderately rough, depending partly on whether it's used for protection or decoration
Plaster, gypsum and variants
Plaster is a generic term, describing function (indoor smoothing/decoration) more than a material. Something similar goes for stucco, though this more usually describes outdoor-resistant variants.
Plaster is often gypsum, lime, or cement. Stucco was originally similar (lime and sand) though later involved portland cement or such for durability, and possibly fibers for strength.
On the building and DIY sides we have some more well-defined mixes.
Gypsum itself is calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO4·2H2O), a transparent mineral crystal. It is used in fertilizer, and also as a main ingredient in plaster, drywall, blackboard chalk, and a few other things.
Gypsum plaster, a.k.a. plaster of paris, is calcium sulfate hemi-hydrate (CaSO4·0.5H2O), a dry white powder produced by heating the dihydrate to 150 C. (there are four different hydrated stages, the two just mentioned are generally the most interesting.) With water, gypsum plaster reforms into gypsum,
Quicklime is calcium oxide (CaO)
Lime plaster is calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), a colorless crystal or white powder, which you get mixing quicklime and water.
- Also known as slaked lime, hydrated lime, caustic lime, builders' lime, cal, pickling lime
Limestone is calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is the set form of lime plaster, and is a modest portion (~10%) of sedementary rock out there, and e.g. what makes many caves.
Lime refers to calcium oxide or calcium hydroxide, though more broadly can include any of the above
On the DIY side, clays can be split into water-based and oil-based.
Water based clay will more easily shrink, which is also roughly why it is more likely to crack.
Oil based clay is, well, oil mixed in with clay. It will not dry out, though will slowly oxidize and become harder to work.
Oil based clay is great for things like stop motion
Note that some oil clays contain sulfur, which is relevant to people who make molds, in that e.g. silicone doesn't like sulphur.
You can make oil clays yourself, though it's a whole bunch of mechanical work per volume.
Brick and building clay
air dry versus oven bake (or even microwave)
Flour / salt-dough clay
Household and DIY substances
|This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, or tell me)|
|This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, or tell me)|
The salt we eat is mainly sodium chloride, NaCl.
Table salt is mostly pure sodium chloride
- very usually with some anti-caking agents
- In various places table salt is iodized.
Iodized salt, a.k.a. fortified table salt, contains a few dozen parts per million iodine salt,
- as a micronutrient we need and may or may not have another ready source of (like seafood, kelp, other sea vegetables).
Kosher salt is table salt without iodine - so may be pure, though
- seems to often still have anti-caking, but may not, in which case it'll clump
Pickling salt - doesn't contain iodine or anti-caking, so is the purest form of NaCl you can easily get,
- be aware it'll clump
Dishwasher salt is usually fairly sodium chloride salt, without anticaking - but might contain some processing leftovers so isn't food grade
In everyday use, "soda" can refer to a few different sodium-based compounds.
In everyday use, it's often:
Sodium carbonate can refer to (Na2CO3) or one of its hydrated forms
- a.k.a. soda, soda ash, sal soda, washing soda (the last often seems to be the decahydrate, the larger crystals(verify))
- the unhydrated and monohydrate are powdery. It is hygroscopic, meaning it will absorb moisture from the air and over time become one of the hydrated forms, which clumps into crystals
- Apparently the name 'soda ash' comes from the fact that sodium carbonate was once once largely extracted from seaweed ashes.
- uses include
- water softener: in washing machines, a little soda can be used in combination with detergent: hard water contains magnesium and calcium, which some of the detergent would bind to it instead of being effective; soda takes its place, which is a cheaper solution than using more detergent.
- as a bleach for cotton, linen
- in taxidermy, it can be used to clean bones of flesh (used as a fairly strong alkali solution)
- in swimming pools, it can be used to balance the effect of chlorine, and raise the pH
- helps certain types of dyeing
- occasionally used in cooking or other cases of lyeing (where you might more typicall use NaOH)
Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3; reacted from soda, CO2 and water)
- a.k.a. baking soda, bicarbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate
- (and a component in things like alka seltzer).
Sodium hydroxide (NaOH),
- a.k.a. caustic soda, lye, soda lye, white caustic
- In dutch: natronloog
- A strong base, exothermic (generates heat) when dissolved into water.
- Dissolves hairs and many fats, so is useful in unclogging drains.
- Corrodes aluminium, so not a general-purpose cleaner.
Alcohol is chemical property, and we often see it as a series of related molecules.
The alcohol we drink is specifically ethanol (a.k.a. ethyl alcohol). Chemically, almost all other alcohols are rather toxic at even small amounts; ethanol is toxic only at large amounts.
(There is also tert-amyl alcohol (a.k.a. TAA, 2-methyl-2-butanol), a byproduct of fermented ethanol, found e.g. in beer. It's a minor product and has effects similar to ethanol that we typically ignore it.)
These are effectively psychoactive drugs, and somewhat addictive. But we like it and have decent social control so heeey.
Non-drinkable alcohols you may see around enough include
- see below
- methanol, a.k.a. methyl alcohol, and also wood alcohol (because that was once a way to produce it)
- poisonous in all but the tinest amounts
- itself not as effective cleaner compared to other alcohols, which is why you don't see it much by itself
- but still useful in production of other things
- and as a fuel
- but used as an addition, e.g.
- in things like denatured alcohol, where the point is largely "is toxic, tastes awful"
- in antifreeze, because it lowers the freezing point
Isopropyl alcohol, a.k.a. isopropanol, 2-propanol
- C3H8O, and a secondary alcohol (verify)
- propertywise it is comparable to similar-concentation ethyl-based alcohol
- mostly used for cleaning things (residues are slighter and of low toxicity), solvent (also e.g. in manufacturing processes), and used for its disinfecting properties
- cheaper (particularly at higher concentrations) than ethyl-based solvent since isopropyl is not due to excise tax
- purer than ethyl-based solvent since the latter is typically a mix
- A distilled resin, used to thin some paints and varnishes (but there are cheaper and less nasty solvents)
- Dutch: Terpentine
Mineral turpentine, a.k.a. turps, white spirit
- a cheaper, petroleum-based substitute for vegetable based turpentine.
- Used to thin some paints, varnishes, aerosols, and more.
- Also: Stoddard solvent, but this name has changed its meaning somewhat so is more of a catchall now(verify)
Denatured alcohol, methylated spirit
- ethanol-based alcohol (~90% in the US?(verify)) with an addition that makes it taste awful, and probably toxic
- Typically using methanol, and/or other things (so that you don't get the bright idea of drinking it for the ethanol when you're out of vodka)
- may be dyed an unusual color to help identify it
- the exact composition varies per country
- the denaturants used are similar in most places
- the differences seem to come largely from alcohol taxation laws
- and there are some localized names that can be more specific to content
- Variants for fuel often have a little more ethanol than variants used for cleaning (but even the cleaning stuff is quite flammable)
- Dutch: brandspiritus
rubbing alcohol is a generic name (mostly around the US)
- ≥70% of either isopropyl (often?), or ethyl-based alcohol
- plus something to denature it and possibly bitter it, so really don't drink it
- if sold as an antiseptic, then often no stronger 70%, because apparently effectiveness as an antiseptic decreases above that(verify)), and rubbing alcohol is a household name in part for this reason
- the name originates from use in massage, though what was originally used for that was different(verify)
- not recommended in wounds, because it would hurt a lot more than necessary (and dry out the wound a little, which is not what you want)
Surgical spirit seems to be the UK name, comparable to rubbing alcohol
- 95% denatured alcohol (e.g. 90% ethanol, 5% methanol?)
Cleaning alcohol may often be isopropyl or ethanol-based
- and may (or may not) contain fewer additives(verify)
- also may be anhydrous, containing little to no water (the leftover percentage in rubbing alcohol and surgival spirit is water)
Wasbenzine (dutch name)
- A mix of hydrocarbons, useful as a solvent and as fuel (CnH2n+2 with n between 5 and 15)
- Its use as a solvent is milder than things like turpentine or thinner
- White gas, while a generic name that can also refer to petroleum-derived, now often refers to this. Note that this is not the same as white spirit.
- Household ammonia is NH3 in a bunch of water
- useful for streak-free cleaning of glass, porcelain, stainless steel
- Also good for soaking some grime, think ovens and such
- Window cleaner is mainly alcohol (mainly isopropyl or ethanol?(verify)), sometimes with ammonia added
Acetone (a.k.a. 2-propanone)
- A relatively gentle thinner, e.g. in nail polish remover (nail polish remover is often isopropyl alcohol, and/or Ethyl acetate, and/or acetone)
- cheap solvent/thinner, relatively harmless (to the point it's a natural byproduct in wine), sweet smelling
- e.g. used in nail polish remover, PCB cleaning
Nail polish remover is one of many (organic) solvents
- ...but often one of:
- ...and may include oils, scents, and coloring
spirit vinegar, distilled vinegar, cleaning vinegar (nl: Schoonmaakazijn)
- more concentrated acetic acid (CH3COOH) than in typical vinegar
- typically fermented from alcohol (not distilled, despite the name)
- so is often also purer than food-grade vinegar, in that it avoids planty byproducts, sugar, and more
- note some possible confusion with food-grade fermented vinegars, like sherry vinegar
- useful for cleaning limescale, some fat
- cleaning vinegar
- is a little more concentrated than typical white vinegar
- may have additives like scents
- but usually nothing that is visible, because people use it to clean glass
- industrial vinegar
- 20% acid (rather than the five-ish of most others), so be careful with this
Naphta (Dutch: Nafta) is a mix of hydrocarbons that comes from distilling raw oil.
Some things that are more functional description than anything specific:
Paint thinner (in the context of painting)
- May be/involve acetone, turpentine, and various others(verify)
- Some mix, the more basic apparently based on dichloromethane
Kwastenreiniger (Dutch, literally 'brush cleaner')
- May well be turpentine(verify) (when for alkyd/oil paints)
Sticker remover could by many things
- though often reasonable amount of xylene, with the rest less defined, often various hydrocarbons
You can throw a solvent at it, but if you worry solvents may affect the surface it's on, you can try to start gentler.
Mild things that may work
- just your fingernails - whatever you can get off without chemicals is not risky.
- Possibly get a guy, their nails are often little harder(verify)
- washing-up liquid and a soft cloth - tends not to work. But if it does, is nicely mild.
- tape - apply, press down, tear off. Idea is that you take a little each time. May take a while, if it works at all.
- peanut butter, cooking oil, or other oily things - leave it soak for a minute or two. Tends to work pretty well on the sort of residue that you can sort of push around but have trouble pulling off, although there may be a lower layer of more dried-up glue that it won't get off.
- (why does this work? is it that oil may get into the glue-surface interface and peanut butter just happens to be a nice way to dose low amounts of oil?(verify) maybe there's some mild abrasion too?)
- sticker remover - (usually xylene and hydrocarbons)
- alcohol (e.g. isopropyl)
be careful with:
- warming - warm glue is easier to remove
- A cloth with hot water may work, but doesn't hold heat very long
- (also works for price tags - I've seen someone in a CD store skillfully use a lighter)
- Filed under careful because some ways of heating are bad ideas
- nail polish remover
- because you may not know whether it's the harsher acetone, the gentler isopropyl alcohol, or something else
- wasbenzine (TRANSLATE) - depends on the plastic. Tends to make glossy plastic less glossy. If you use it, have another damp cloth to clean it off immediately.
- aceton - more so
- lamp oil - is an oil so likely leaves residue. Also can be one of a few different things
Unsorted / untested:
- WD40 (both oil and solvents, so presumably works)
Maybe a bad idea:
- turpentine - harsh on many surfaces
- thinner - harsh on many surfaces
Dehumidifiers / Dessicants
- Hygroscopic substances, often adsorption. Some can be reused (water separates out easily), others are more bothersome
- Silica gel - often seen in small packages shipped with products. Reusable through (careful) heating.
- Calcium chloride - one of the cheapest and easiest chemical variants. Anhydrous CaCl (crystals) adsorbs water, which dissolves it (with some minor heat heat). That solution is often collected.
- In small quantities it's perfectly safe, e.g. used as a food preservatives and in some doughs. You wouldn't want to drink the amounts used to dehumidify, of course.
- Electric dehumidifers - e.g. condensation. Don't need refilling, but may still need maintenance
- A few grains of rice is useful for salt shakers, because that works two ways: the rice helps keep the salt from lumping (perhaps more because of mechanics than because of absorption of water), and the salt means bacteria won't like the rice
Bleach refers not to a specific chemical, but to anything that whitens clothes, lightens hair, remove stains, and/or disinfects.
You could say it's anything that messes with proteins, which is also why it's good against bacteria and viruses, and in fact many small things that are alive, which is e.g. why it's a quick way to make a bunch of water safe to drink (with the footnote that using more than a little is also not great for you).
Most general purpose bleaches are oxidizing agents. There are also reducing bleaches, but they are less generic in their use(verify) so rarer.
Stronger household bleaches are typically chlorine-based.
Gentler bleaches, e.g. the stain remover sort, are often a peroxide, typically hydrogen peroxide, in this use known under names like 'oxygen bleach', 'color safe bleach', and others.
The more typical and more aggressive household bleach, e.g. used to clean nasty floors, and take color from certain fabrics, is typically a chlorine-based bleach, often a hypochlorite (which is alkaline) and then typically sodium hypochlorite.
Sodium hypochlorite is unstable in solution, and wants to decompose (into sodium chloride and sodium chlorate), so household bleach usually has some amount (usually relatively little) of sodium hydroxide (a.k.a. caustic lye) which slows this decomposition - and also disolves hair, fat (which is why it's great at dealing with grease), irritates skin, corrodes aluminium, so is not really a great general-purpose cleaner.
The active ingredient is chlorine (which is a gas, and dangerous in larger quantities), which is released mainly on use, in an oxydizing reaction.
In household use, 'concentrated' means the order of ~5% (sometimes up to 9% or so), which is aggressive enough for most cleaning use, and stays strong enough for a good while. (Stronger variants are used for industrial processes)
A 1:15 mix (~0.3%) is still strong enough for a lot of cleaning. Relatively few cases call for stronger.
It can also remove stains and/or color from fabrics, e.g. cotton - which is a slightly more complex topic, because it will eat deteriorate other fabrics (e.g. wool, silk, various synthetics, leather).
A 1:40 mix (~0.1%) is still effective against most bacteria and a lot of viruses, but be a lot gentler towards people, so safer and cheaper.
Drinking water usually has less than 0.0004%, though this varies per area.
Chlorine levels in pools, useful to stop bacteria growth in pools, is of a similar magnitude, and is more standard.
Chlorine added to drinking water is often kept below 4ppm / 4mg/L / 0.0004% - and in a few cases much lower. The necessity varies with e.g. the infrastructure (source of the water, typical methodology used (chlorine, UV light, or ozone), state of maintenance of all pipes), to the point that people in different countries and different areas associate more chlorine - or less chlorine - with better-quality water.
You can do this yourself (from ~5% solution it's a few drops per liter) but there's a few mistakes you don't want to make (and you probably don't want bleach with fragrance either), so consider boiling the water instead.
Chlorine in pools is usually kept somewhere between 0.5ppm and 2ppm (0.00005% .. 0.0002%), to be effective but avoid much eye irritation. Public pools, outside pools, and particularly jacuzzis and such may be a little higher, for varied reasons (including ease of management).
That typical swimming pool smell significantly involves chloramine, basically chlorine-based bleach that has already reacted with germs, saliva, sweat, urine, or other amines common in that context. There are other things that react, like cosmetics.
Note that you barely smell unreacted chlorine, so a stronger-than-usual smell at a pool signals there has been more muck it reacted with, so more byproducts.
At these concentrations it is more the byproducts than the chlorine that are unhealthy.(verify) (If you're trying to manage a pool, there are more footnotes to this, though)
In general, don't mix hypochlorite style bleach with other things (or cleaning products in general - there are other combinations that are bad).
There are plenty of safe combinations, but you need to know for every specific other product, and it's not really something you want to figure out by trial and error.
The problem is that some combinations (e.g. vinegar, ammonia, cleaning alcohols, acids) cause reactions that quickly release much of the chlorine as gas, and/or interesting things like chloroform, chloramine, hydrochloric acid, chloroacetone, and more.
Other things you don't want
Since these weaken/damage proteins
- don't use these on protein fabrics (wool, silk, mohair, leather).
- synthetics vary - e.g. polyester, nylon, and acrylic seem fine, while e.g. polyether (so e.g. spandex) is not.
Oils and waxes
Gel point - the point below which it is frozen enough that it can no longer flow
that most of us won't really care about.
Smoke point, sometimes burning point, is the temperature at which external heat means it starts to decompose, and a little more temperature proably smoke as well
- we mostly care about this around oils we eat, because thisis bad for taste, and also not too healthy
- note: doesn't mean it's on fire
- Perhaps most interesting for fats, because unlike a lot of oils, they have a smoke point that is well away from the flash point.
- Oils with higher smoke points can be more practical for stir frying, deep frying and such.
Flash point is the temperature above which something will light on fire if there is an ignition source.
- It may may not produce enough vapour to continue burning, though.
Fire point is the lowest temperature above which igniting it also produces enough vapour for the burning to also be self-sustaining.
- This is often relatively close to the flash point, so safety-wise you care mainly about the flash point.
Auto-ignition temperature, a.k.a. self-ignition temperature, is the point at which something acts as its own ignition source (in a normal atmosphere).
- This is generally higher than we need to worry about.
- Even most fuels, which are very happy to burn, tend to have an auto-ignition temperature above 200°C
Olive oil has a gel point around 10°C, making it harder to pour
- and starts to solidify (and thereby cloud up) around 4°C
- and a flame point around 200°C
Gasoline has gel point around -70°C, a flash point around -40°C, and an auto-ignition temperature around 280°C.
Diesel has a gel point around 10°C, a flash point above 50°C and a self-ignition temperature around 210°C.
Kerosene has a gel point around -40°C, a flash point around between 40C and 70°F(verify) depending on variant, and a self-ignition temperature around 220°C
This means diesel is safer than gasoline (which will always happily burn), but also that diesel is more involved to start, and less guaranteed to do so in winter. And kerosene is somewhere inbetween.
Pure alcohols tend to have a flash/fire point around 10..15C
- e.g. methylated spirit burns very well
Drinkable alcohol mostly doesn't, because most liquid is water
- below approx 25% the water vapour puts it out(verify)
- at 30% you get tiny bit of flame, but not very exciting
- even 40% is a lowish controlled flame
- only really strong alcohol (50% to 75%) is any fun, fire-wise
- used to be a simple test that a strong whiskey wasn't watered down(verify) (though today whiskeys are often ~40%)
Lamp oil is often a mix with an intentionally fairly high flame point (to make it safe to store), like 60..100C
Waxes have a high flame point - and often a melting point above room temperature
- e.g. paraffin waxes, though a melting point around 40C, have a flame point around 200..250C
- which is part of why it's easy to burn them slowly around a wick
Linseed oil has a flash point around 50°C, and a self-ignition temperature around 340°C
Some oil terms
I recommend reading up on massage oils, there are far better resources than a few paragraphs here.
If looking for a pure oil, look for the terms like carrier oil or base oil, because by intent these are neutral enough so that you can add your own essential oil.
This often means few or no additives, and will only have their natural smell, which is usually subtle.
Essential oils are distilled oils from plants, meaning that as-is most are highly concentrated, highly aromatic, plus some ascribed properties, and are intended to be added to a large volume of base oil.
You may wish to avoid them - or perhaps get an essential oil you really like separately, so you can add it to your favourite base oil yourself.
Cold pressed means the oil was never heated over a certain temperature (30 degrees or so, varying) during processing - which means more nutrients and less degradation. This matters more to nutrition in food, but you may find some texture difference for massage as well.(verify)
Virgin, commonly associated with olive oil but also relevant to others, means only physical pressing was used to get the oil, and no chemical process.
Refined, seen on many oils,
- can mean a chemical process was used,
- or sometimes that lower quality oils were mixed in (usually under quality controls), to give oils that are cheaper but still with most of the consistency and taste of the nicer oil in there.
The label 'organic' does not necessarily imply the absence of refining processes, but regularly does.
Fractionated oils refer to separation of different-length molecules, which is relevant when a plant produces a mix and you want a specific consistency of oil.
For example, coconuts produce several oils(verify), some of which are liquid and some solid at room temperature. So coconut oil as the original mix is chunky, 'fractionated coconut oil' usually refers to the smooth liquid part of it. (note that not all fractionated oil is created equal, e.g. fractionated coconut oil for massage cares a little less about residues from the fractionation)
Linseed oil, a.k.a. flaxseed oil, flax oil (dutch: nl, nl) is the oil from ripe flax plant seeds.
It is one of the better known drying oils (alongside tung oil), which are the oils that hardens when exposed to air.
Pure/raw linseed oil is edible, though more easily becomes rancid than various other oils, and has a low smoke point, so is impractical for cooking.
It is used as an ingredient in some soaps, some putty, some resins. Also some varnishes and some paints, but now largely replaced there.
Even as a product by itself it may be mixed with solvents, resins, and other oils.
It is central to linoleum.
Boiled linseed oil is a variant that oxidizes / polymerizes / hardens more, and faster(verify) than raw linseed oil.
It's a chemical change, not just a temperature one. (The name comes from an old process of boiling it together with lead oxide. There are better processes now.)
Boiled linseed oil is useful for wood you put outside, because it's thin enough to impregnate it.
It needs more frequent upkeep over time because it is still softish, and not as protective as harder things like stains and varnishes, but is much better than nothing and is a natural rather than petrochemical oil.
There are some products for wood that are linseed mixed with other things.
The reaction of boiled linseed oil is exothermic. (so is raw linseed oil, but it reacts too slowly to matter in most situations).
The point is that in theory it could heat itself to the flame point where an external ignition will make it burn well, or even catch on fire.
This won't happen easily, but it can.
Linseed's flash point is around 95°C, its self-ignition point is around 340°C.
If you wanted to do this intentionally, you might
- have a rag or paper still containing not too much oil (it seems that drenching it might actually help distribute heat - there's a reason an open pot of it is no risk. Too little might not have enough fuel, though)
- rolled in a ball other otherwise having a lot happening in little space
- put in a confined place where heat can't escape, preferably insulated
- with no draft (so probably a closed container), but probably still a way for oxygen to convect in
- it can't hurt to have some external heat, like a very hot day and direct sunlight to help heat that confined space a dozen or two degrees to start with,
...then add enough time for it to build to 95°C for a cigarette based accident (remember, flash point only means it burns with external ignition), or 340°C for it to burn your house down without help.
That's such a specific list that most of the time, you still only end up with a mess that was temporarily fairly warm.
That said, trash cans actually fit that list fairly well, more so if multiple people used a lot of rags in a day... anecdotally, most reports of "yes this happened" seem to happen around woodworking shops.
Dramatic youtubes are often either engineering it or probably just set it on fire themselves because it wasn't happening fast enough and I'm sure it's true right?
Grease and lubricant
Some plastics / polymers
| These are primarily notes|
It won't be complete in any sense.
It exists to contain fragments of useful information.
The word plastic refers to the ability to mold it.
In the set of "things that occur naturally, or we've managed to make", that turns out to most often describe polymers of high molecular mass, and often from hydrocarbons.
We've extended the idea - and also control the polymerisation process better than nature can - so we can get much more specific, and long-chained polymers, that don't appear naturally, which is why nature doesn't know how to deal with them: Polymers are chemically robust, and something that doesn't break down sits around.
Even a chemically specific plastic can vary in robustness, depending on how much you polymerize it. Also in feel - there are some plastics you know as hard glass-like panels or boxes that can also be extruded into thin threads and woven into a soft fabric. This also makes it harder to tell what any plastic is (sometimes even that it is a plastic, assuming you don't see a printed code, and/or have just held it in fire).
Some of the plastics most commonly used in everyday objects are labeled with chasing-arrow triangle (♺) with a number in it.
This is the ASTM resin coding system / RIC (Which does not necessarily indicate that it is recyclable, but easy identification certainly helps separate the ones that are from those that aren't, and separate them from each other so you can repeat that recycling)
- ♳ 1 PET (a.k.a. PETE)
- ♴ 2 HDPE
- ♵ 3 V
- ♶ 4 LDPE
- ♷ 5 PP
- ♸ 6 PS
- ♹ 7 other
RIC seems to refer to just these, and this seems based in the US.
The EU's is essentially an extension of RIC, so more fine grained
China's is a different extension.
Japan's looks a little different
There's also the angled bracket things, which seems more like a convention(verify), which looks like , , or which seem to use the same sort of acronyms, with some additions, like that FR(40) seems to indicate the amount of fiber reinforcement.
(suggestions of where to find more about this coding is quite welcome)
A wider set of common plastics include:
Polyethylene (PE) (a.k.a. polythene, polyethene)
- probably the most common plastic.
- thermoplastic, so can be recycled decently
Seen in various forms, some of the common ones including:
- low density polyethylene (LDPE) -
- e.g. transparent plastic bags, dispensing bottles, tubing, white-opaque foamy wrapping, more
- 4 in the coding system
- linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE)
- In comparison to LDPE: can be thinner, somewhat harder to process (e.g. extrude)
- e.g. plastic bags, plastic wraps, lids, tubing, more
- high-density polyethylene (HDPE)
- various (harder, stronger) bottles (alternative to PET), plastic bags, tubing,
- 2 in the coding system
Polyester is a fairly general term, though it is frequently used to refer specifically to PET 
Polyethylene terephthalate (PET, or occasionally PETE), perhaps best known for its use in soda bottles 
- recycled, though avoid constant reuse yourself - the surface is mildly porous so retains bacteria and flavour - there are better choices for containers you reuse a lot
- 1 in the ASTM coding system
Polyurethane (PUR, PU) is seen in various forms, including flexible and rigid foam, gel, and an mildly flexible plastic. 
Polypropylene (sometimes PP), 
- 5 in the ASTM coding system
- seen e.g. in straws, bottle caps (regardless of the container plastic)
- also used around kitchens (e.g. alternative to PVC pipes) and food (e.g. our juicer's collection bucket is PP), in part because it is one of the more inert plastics(verify), which is also roughly why this is harder to glue
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under some specific uses (e.g. pleather), and also vinyl (even though PVC is technically one of various vinyls) 
- 3 in the ASTM coding system
Nylon (actually a grouping name) 
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
- frequently combined with polycarbonate (PC+ABS), which is stronger just ABS alone and cheaper than just PC
Polylactic Acid (PLA) (a.k.a. polylactide) is a thermoplast
- derived from renewable crops
- one of the plastics used in 3D printing
- mechanically similar to PETE, but not very temperature resistant
- thermoplast (~100C)
- not very biodegrable
- 6 in the ASTM coding system
- styrofoam (a brand name) is a specific form of polystyrene - (closed-cell) extruded polystyrene foam
High-Impact Polystyrene (HIPS)
Polycarbonate (PC) technically refers to a group of polymers, and practically often to sheets that look similar to acrylic sheeting. Such polycarbonate is stronger and less brittle under load (and costs perhaps 20-30% more).
Trade names include lexan, makrolon,
Harder to bend than acrylic/plexiglass, in part because it's more heat-resistant, and in part because it turns out that the softening and melting temperatures are closer together.
Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), more commonly known under names like acrylic glass, and brand names like perspex, plexiglass/plexiglas, lucite and others
There is some variation in quality and construction.
Somewhat hard to work on, as power tools (drilling sawing) will easily create local stress that lead to local cracks in ways you don't want it to (and which easily spread), and you may also heat the plastic to melt to the tool, or at least stink a bunch.
Some tools are handier than others - bandsaws apparently work well to avoid stress, but may still be a problem in terms of heat.
It seems to be easiest to (like glass) create a weak line edge by scoring, then break it off at the edge. It'll bend before it breaks, and it doesn't follow weakness quite as easily as glass does, so for longer breaks you need to do more scoring than you would with glass.
While the glass transition phase temperature varies with the exact copolymer that a speciic product, most lie around 105C (220F), so you can shape these using heat. Often done with a strip heater (better controlled, avoids overheating), a more custom made wire resistance heater, or even a paint stripper gun. You can get creative with shapes, but most bends are probably straight-line bends, or sometimes slower wavy bending - but you usually want to support the new shape somehow if you do that.
Try to heat evenly, gradually, and don't overheat. You also want to work on dry sheets.
Rubber, synthetic rubber, latex: Latex is the name of the sap, rubber a derived product.
Nitrile rubber is a copolymer. It is also known as just nitrile, e.g. in 'nitrile gloves' 
Foams and other fillers
Things you might for example consider to stuff pillows with
Note that firmness and compression over time varies not only with material but also with process.
In the widest sense, foam means 'gas trapped in anything', from soap bubbles to the insulating walls of the International Space Station.
Most of the time it refers to some lightish springy stuff used for sitting on, and to things like padding and isolation.
Open cell structure foams
Lessening sound reflection
Dealing with moisture
Refers to wood made for a specific use/strength, look, or such.
Regularly composite wood, regularly pressed wood, though not necessarily either of those.
Oriented Strand Board (OSB)
structural composite lumber
Laminated veneer lumber (LVL)
parallel strand lumber (PSL)
laminated strand lumber (LSL)
oriented strand lumber (OSL)
MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard)
Glued laminated timber
Wood in saunas