Chemistry of common things

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See Doughs, batters, leaveners


Trees, O2, CO2


On hydration

Drinking slowly?

3 liters a day, or less?



On bottled water

Demineralized and distilled water

Distilled water is nearly-pure H2O, because distillation means you move the water and leave behind most other things

Demineralized water means few to no minerals (fresh natural water has some, tapwater has a more-controlled bunch; see also hard water) by some method

...but says little about what else may still be in there
it's useful to keep minerals out of chothes irons, car batteries, and such (largely to avoid limescale)

On contents of demineralized water

Demineralized water often mentions it is not fit for consumption

in practice it's usually pretty clean water, but it's not guaranteed to be pure
largely because depending on the process of demineralization, there may be other things still left in there, say, a few bacteria. Your iron or car battery won't care, but you might
and because it doesn't matter for the intended uses
(also in part because it's also sold in supermarkets, so it's useful, possibly required, to point this out explicitly)

Does distilled or demineralized water lead to nutritional deficiency?

On water poisoning

tl;dr: You are at negligible risk.

Water poisoning happens when drinking a large amount in a short time, because of other balances, primarily salt and other electrolytes.

Basically, drinking a lot of water means shifting various balances, basically diluting various things with water containing little else, and doing that enough causes effects like osmosis taking necessary salts out of your kidneys.

(roughly why saline solution is medially a sensible way to deal with dehydration - though studies show there are subtler choices for that; 0.9% saline solution, while is already mostly water, still has more Na and Cl than human serum)

The thing is that quickly drinking liters of almost anything will do this, unless it happens to be a very specific mix.

And there's little variation in types of water, because while tap water has more minerals (including salt), as does a lot of bottled, it's almost always very low, aimed at being minor suppliment at best.

This because it's primarily salt in our food is what helps keep our salt balance, and your cravings will typically guide you near a good balance (actually, many of us eat a little too much salt).

Long story short, everything else being equal, e.g. not being stranded in the desert for weeks with liters to drink and nothing to eat, drinking the same amount of distilled or tap water has very little effect either way.

Water hardness

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

Fluoride in drinking water

Salty water