Keyhole Markup Language
| These are primarily notes|
It won't be complete in any sense.
It exists to contain fragments of useful information.
Note that KML is an open format, and specific apps (such as Google Earth) may not use/support all of it.
Applications and associations
KML (Keyhole Markup Language)
- MIME: application/vnd.google-earth.kml+xml
- containing a compressed KML file,
- ...lets you pack in images (icons, etc.) so that the KML does not have to refer to public-server URIs for that
Will open in Google Earth or anything else that has it registered.
Note that Google Maps also takes KML, like:
A simple KML file looks like:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <kml xmlns="http://earth.google.com/kml/2.2"> <Placemark> <name>Portland</name> <Point> <coordinates>-122.6676358763541,45.52181645404051</coordinates> </Point> </Placemark> </kml>
What is stored
KML Features include:
- Placemark (basic vector features: points, lines, polygons)
- Folder, Document (containers)
- Document (container for features and styles)
- Folder (container for features)
- image overlays (ground, screen, photo)
- NetworkLink (to remote KML/KMZ files)
Note that Region is regularly used to describe metadata and points of interest within certain boxes.
Lod allows you to specify the (minimum, maximum) screen size of a feature before it should be considered active.
You can declare colors and/or line widths on icons, labels, lines, polygons, balloons, and lists.
May be ignored unless you need them.
Are usually referenced by their id, within the same document.
- should include a <name> and
- may include a <description> (HTML must be element-escaped, or in CDATA section)
- may include a <LookAt> structure
- may include a <styleUrl> to refer to style (usually a #hash based URL to refer to a style declared in the same KML file.
- has an element declaring its type: (Point, LineString, etc., see below)
- with option elements depending on the type
- and a <coordinates> element
- with coordinates in text nodes
- space-separated coordinates
- comma-separated per dimensions
- longitude (≥ −180 and <= 180)
- latitude (≥ −90 and ≤ 90)
- altitude (meters) (optional)
- altitudeMode (string)
- defines interpretation of the third (altitude) coordinate, if used:
- clampToGround (default, ignores altitude)
- relativeToGround: Relative to ground elevation
- absolute: Relative to sea level (regardless of ground elevation)
- extrude (boolean, 0 or 1)
- connect point/line/polygon to ground (direction of center of Earth)
- applies when altitudeMode is relativeToGround or absolute
- tessellate (boolean, 0 or 1)
- Show very large line segments so they follow the terrain (vertically, rather than poking through mountains, go underground, etc.)
- applies when altitudeMode is clampToGround
Types, options per type
- altitudeMode, extrude
- Example: <Point><coordinates>-6.1456,-35.1</coordinates></Point>
- Non-closed sequence of coordinates
- altitudeMode, extrude, tessellate
- Closed line string (a minimal polygon)
- altitudeMode, extrude, tessellate,
- typically the outer boundary of a Polygon. A LinearRing can also be used as the inner boundary of a Polygon to create holes in the Polygon. A Polygon can contain multiple <LinearRing> elements used as inner boundaries.
- Similar to LinearRing, with a required main polygon, and contained cutout polygons:
- outerBoundaryIs (LinearRing), required
- innerBoundaryIs (LinearRing), (0 or more)
- altitudeMode, extrude, tessellate
Can contain one or more Geometry-type (e.g. line, polygon) elements, that should be viewed as a single feature.
(except in cases where polygon innerBoundaries apply?)
Points to a COLLADA resource (see also Cartographic notes)
Time and animation: