Electronics notes/Mounts, chip carriers, packages, connectors

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This is for beginners and very much by a beginner. It's meant to try to cover hobbyist needs, and as a starting point to find out which may be the relevant details for you, not for definitive information.

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Less sorted: Common terms, useful basics, soldering · Microcontroller and computer platforms · Arduino and AVR notes · ESP series notes · Electronics notes/Phase Locked Loop notes · mounts, chip carriers, packages, connectors · signal reflection · pulse modulation · electricity and humans · Unsorted stuff


See also Category:Electronics.


For more everyday connectors, see Common plugs and connectors


Mounts, chip carriers

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

Packages refer to the specific design and size of something a particular component is housed in.

You will often see specific component types (and particularly specific models) in certain specific packages/mounts. For example, transistors are often seen in SOT or TO, diodes often in DO, LEDs often in what seems to be called T1, and so on.


On pitch

Pitch refers to the spacing of pins (more often mentioned in through-hole components, as those are fairly wide-purpose, while suface mount components tend to be more specialized packages)

Common pitches include

  • .100" (2.54mm)
  • .079" (2mm)
  • .050" (1.27mm)
  • .031" (0.8mm)
  • .019" (0.5mm)

There are a number of different measures that can be relevant in addition to pitch. See for example http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_electronics_package_dimensions#Through_hole_pin_dimension_reference

SMD/SMT versus though-hole

There is a noticable distinction in through-hole versus surface mount:


SMD (Surface Mount Devices) and SMT (Surface Mount Technology) refer broadly to not using holes, often with leads that end flat on the circuit board, to be soldered in place. SMD seems to have become popular since approximately the eighties. There are SMT variants of ICs, resistors, capacitors, and various other sorts of packages.

SMD/SMT can be seen as the top of a hierarchy of a lot of other acronyms and a buttload of specific packages.


The older style it is replacing has been (retroactively) named though-hole technology, occasionally abbreviated to THT.


See also:

Packages, roughly from fewer to more leads

TO, SOT, SC, some small SMD

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

TO, SOT, SC, SOD refer to a style of making packages, all with quite a few variants, and usually with a small pin-count (often between 2 and perhaps 7, usually between 3 and 6).

While they have names referring to specific uses and sizes (TO: 'transistor outline', SOT: 'small-outline transistor', SOD: 'smal outlide diode'), most of these packages end up seeing many other uses - particularly those packages that handle more than average power (heat).

Note that a number of specific packages have names in more than one of these series.

Many of these are THT, some SMT, some usable as both as they have long pins (some bending involved for THT).



TO ('transistor outline')

TO is often used when there is power involved (mostly because of the package's thermal capacity), e.g. for transistors, regulators, darlingtons, power resistors.


TO-18
TO-3


Specific TO packages include:

  • TO-220 (images) (good heat dissipation, frequently used where power is involved)



  • TO-236-AA (resembles SOT-23, but sizes are a little different)


D2PAK
  • TO-252(-AA), a.k.a. DPAK (4.6mm pitch)
  • TO-263(-AB), a.k.a. D2PAK (effectively 5.08mm pitch, because the middle isn't a pin(verify))
  • TO-262 a.k.a. I2PAK
  • TO-251 a.k.a. IPAK





File:SOT-23.png
SOT-23 with 3 pins


SOT ('Small Outline Transistor')

A surface-mount package, used for transistors, but also rectifiers, regulators, and more.


There are quite a few variations, many with pins that are wider for better heat transfer.


  • SOT-23 - with different amounts of acually present pins, sometimes referred to as:
    • SOT-23-3
    • SOT-23-5
    • SOT-23-6
    • SOT-23-8
  • SOT-89
  • SOT-223 (three-terminal)
  • SOT-232 (three-terminal)
  • SOT-363
  • SOT-353
  • SOT-416 (SC-75) (three-terminal)
  • SOT-723 (three-terminal)
  • SOT-883 (three-terminal)



SC looks like SOT, but has thinner leads (verify)

  • SC59
    • SC59-5
    • SC59-6
  • SC-74A
  • SC-70





DO

THT-style diodes are often seen in DO-xx, for example

  • DO-35
  • DO-15
  • DO-41



Unsorted

LEDs often in [1]

  • the circular plastic housing is often mentioned just by its radius, though seems to also be called:(verify)
    • T-1 (3mm)
    • T-1 3/4 (5mm)
    • T-3/4 (2mm)

seems to be called T1(verify) (but more commonly mentioned just by its radius)

  • flat housings (THT connectors)
  • SMT



SIP

SIP
You can use headers as SIP package

Pitch: 2.54mm

Single Inline Package. Regularly 0.1" pitch. Hardly a package at all.


DIP

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

Pitch: 2.54mm (most variants)

16-pin DIP socket; 14-, 6-, and 4-pin DIP ICs
(all 0.3" row spacing)
DIP-24 with 0.3" row spacing
DIP-24 with with 0.6" row spacing

DIP (also DIL): dual in-line package, usually for ICs which need relatively few pins (up to 64 or so, usually fewer).


DIP often implies 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) pitch.

Most DIP chips have a row spacing of either 0.3 inch (7.62 mm) or 0.6 inch (15.24 mm). DIP is now often assumed to be 0.3" (which is also sometimes called skinny DIP(verify)).


Since DIP is largely about pin spacing, many things besides ICs can use or be compatible with DIP, or make DIP sockets useful for other things than DIP ICs.

For example:




SO

SOIC (Small-Outline Integrated Circuit)

SOIC-14

Pitch: 1.27mm

Pin count variation:

  • SOIC-8
  • SOIC-14
  • SOIC-16

There are wider variants.

See also:


SOJ

Pitch: 1.27mm (verify)

SOIC with J-type leads (instead of gull-wing leads).


SOP

Pitch: 1.27mm, and also 0.80mm, 0.65mm, 0.5mm, 0.4mm

Followed SOIC(verify)


PLCC (Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier)

Pitch: 1.27mm

Micro Leadframe, Flat No-lead

QFP

Pitch: 0.8mm, 0.65mm, 0.5mm, 0.4mm, 0.3mm


PGA

Pitch: 2.5mm, 1.27mm

Plastic or ceramic (PPGA, CPGA)

BGA

Pitch: 1.5mm, 1.27mm, 1.00mm, 0.8mm, 0.5mm

See also


Unsorted

Connectors

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

PCB connectors

Headers

Basic pin headers (male), here on the back of a small PCB

Known variably as just headers, as breakaway headers, as pin headers, and under various other names.

Often 2.54mm (0.1") pitch.

Also the things that jumpers (sometimes known as shunts) sit on.


Two-row headers are regularly also seen in shrouded form.


This is fuzzy area, because terms like PCB headers are a wider concept and can refer to one of many more specialized connectors, such as KK-family molex, which mostly add bits of plastic as polarity protection but will fit on basic headers as long as they have the same pitch.

And you could call a row of headers a Single In-Line package (SIP) without too much of a stretch.




Terminals

See also:



Molex connectors

Molex actually refers to a company, one that makes a lot of different connectors.

When the name is used to refer to a plug, it usually refers to

  • Hard drive power connectors in computers (Molex 8981) - now going out of style in favour of SATA power connectors
  • pin headers with the plastic tab that covers most of their width as polarity protection - Molex KK and a few similar series (Compare also to #JST connectors, )


See also:


MTA connectors

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

MTA 100 connectors

single row, 0.1" / 2.54mm pitch

MTA 156 connectors

single row, 0.156" / 3.96mm pitch

DIN 41651

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

Various series of fairly common insulation-displacement connectors, including IDC.


Can be seen as headers plus some useful plastic (but then, so can many things)

See also:



DIN 41612 / IEC 60603-2

With more than a dozen series / subtypes.

Resembles DIN 41651 (IDC and such), but applications are more specialized, and often has more connections (dozens is not unusual, up to over a hundred).


See also:



Flexible flat cable (FFC)

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

File:Flexible Flat cable variants.jpg

Could refer to any cable that is flat and flexible, but FFC usually refers to a fairly specific type commonly seen in tight spaces such as laptops, phones, printers.

Seen in various colors - transparent brown, gray, black, and others (color can correlate somewhat with size/pitch).

Common pitches include 0.5mm, 1 mm, 1.25mm, 2 mm. Thinner than ribbon cable.


FFC connectors often refer to the PCB sockets that accept the end of these cables, although complex designs may opt for specific connectors that take less space.


Related are Flexible Printed Circuits, which are circuits built fairly directly onto these cables (often using small SMD components, and often fairly simple circuits).


See also:

(Card) Edge Connectors

Refers to PCBs that have have an edge with regularly spaced traces, meant to plug into a spring connector slot on a larger PCB, or into a cable socket (consider 5.25" floppy drive connectors).

Consider e.g.

  • expansion cards (ISO, PCI, AGP, PCIx, etc.),
  • RAM modules,
  • various old game ROM cartridges (NES [2], Sega[3], N64[4], etc.),
  • old 5.25" floppy drives


See also:

Board-to-Board connectors

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of half-sorted notes, is not well-checked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me)

Broadly refers to anything that does many-channel signaling between distinct circuit boards.

Can refer to

  • setups that directly fit boards together (often fairly specialized, small, pin-dense connectors)
  • things only useful for board connectors, like FFC
  • wire-to-board used to connect boards, like IDC

See also