Sound change

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Language units large and small

Marked forms of words - Inflection, Derivation, Declension, Conjugation · Diminutive, Augmentative

Groups and categories and properties of words - Syntactic and lexical categories · Grammatical cases · Correlatives · Expletives · Adjuncts

Words and meaning - Morphology · Lexicology · Semiotics · Onomasiology · Figures of speech, expressions, phraseology, etc. · Word similarity · Ambiguity · Modality ·

Segment function, interaction, reference - Clitics · Apposition· Parataxis, Hypotaxis· Attributive· Binding · Coordinations · Word and concept reference

Sentence structure and style - Agreement · Ellipsis· Hedging

Phonology - Articulation · Formants· Prosody · Sound change · Intonation, stress, focus · Diphones · Intervocalic · Glottal stop · Vowel_diagrams · Elision · Ablaut_and_umlaut · Phonics

Speech processing · Praat notes · Praat plugins and toolkit notes · Praat scripting notes

Analyses, models, software - Minimal pairs · Concordances · Linguistics software · Some_relatively_basic_text_processing · Word embeddings · Semantic similarity

Unsorted - Contextualism · · Text summarization · Accent, Dialect, Language · Pidgin, Creole · Natural language typology · Writing_systems · Typography, orthography · Digraphs, ligatures, dipthongs · More linguistic terms and descriptions · Phonetic scripts

This article/section is a stub — some half-sorted notes, not necessarily checked, not necessarily correct. Feel free to ignore, or tell me about it.



Consonant gradatation






Ablaut and umlaut

Ablaut and umlaut are two different phonological mutations, and often refer to vowel changes under inflection.

the umlout, as in the diacritic, is not very related. See diaresis, trema, umlaut.

Ablaut is generally unconditioned, meaning it happens, but does not have a clear phonological condition, or meaning.

For example, various strong verbs in english have alternative forms, like sing, sang and sung; there is no directly obvious reason why they are the forms, and there is no single such pattern among strong verbs.

Umlaut is conditioned - it happens in specific contexts and not in others, meaning it comes from specific rules and is meaningful when interpreting a word.

I suspect the distinction is somewhat gradual.

See also