This is more for overview of my own than for teaching or exercise.
Overview of the areas
 Arithmetic · 'elementary mathematics' and similar concepts
 Set theory, Category theory
 Geometry and its relatives · Topology
 Elementary algebra  Linear algebra  Abstract algebra
 Calculus and analysis
 Logic
 Semisorted
 : Information theory · Number theory · Decision theory, game theory · Recreational mathematics · Dynamical systems · Unsorted or hard to sort
Math on data:
 some introduction · areas of statistics
 types of data · on random variables, distributions
 Virtues and shortcomings of...
 on sampling · probability
 glossary · references, unsorted
 Footnotes on various analyses
Other data analysis, data summarization, learning
 Regression · Classification, clustering, decisions · dimensionality reduction · Optimization theory, control theory
 Connectionism, neural nets · Evolutionary computing

Arithmetic
Arithmetic at the least is taught for daytoday use, and refers to the application of basic operations on numbers.