Statistics notes  types of data
From Helpful
This is more for overview (my own) than for teaching or exercise.
For some more indepth material to study, see e.g. the http://www.khanacademy.org/
Other data analysis, data summarization, learning

This article/section is a stub — probably a pile of halfsorted notes, is not wellchecked so may have incorrect bits. (Feel free to ignore, fix, or tell me) 
Contents
 1 One possible typology
 1.1 Ratio data (ordered, meaningful zero point, linear scale, (often) continuous)
 1.2 Interval data (ordered, no meaningful zero point, possible linear scale, (often) continuous)
 1.3 Discrete numeric data (ordered, linear scale, discrete)
 1.4 Ordinal data (ordered, but no obvious numbering so not linear, discrete)
 1.5 Nominal/categorical data (unordered, qualitative, discrete)
 2 More words
 3 Variables, dimensions, and measurement, and experiments
One possible typology
Ratio data (ordered, meaningful zero point, linear scale, (often) continuous)
Interval data (ordered, no meaningful zero point, possible linear scale, (often) continuous)
Discrete numeric data (ordered, linear scale, discrete)
Ordinal data (ordered, but no obvious numbering so not linear, discrete)
Nominal/categorical data (unordered, qualitative, discrete)
More words
Other terms
Continuous data refers to valued numbering that is not restricted to be discrete/integer.
 so ratio or interval data in the above list.
Quantitative data  basically anything not categorical, so referring to nominal/categorical.