Speech processing

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Language units large and small

Marked forms of words - Inflection, Derivation, Declension, Conjugation · Diminutive, Augmentative

Groups and categories and properties of words - Syntactic and lexical categories · Grammatical cases · Correlatives · Expletives · Adjuncts

Words and meaning - Morphology · Lexicology · Semiotics · Onomasiology · Figures of speech, expressions, phraseology, etc. · Word similarity · Ambiguity · Modality ·

Segment function, interaction, reference - Clitics · Apposition· Parataxis, Hypotaxis· Attributive· Binding · Coordinations · Word and concept reference

Sentence structure and style - Agreement · Ellipsis· Hedging

Phonology - Articulation · Formants· Prosody · Sound change · Intonation, stress, focus · Diphones · Intervocalic · Glottal stop · Vowel_diagrams · Elision · Ablaut_and_umlaut · Phonics

Speech processing · Praat notes · Praat plugins and toolkit notes · Praat scripting notes

Analyses, models, software - Minimal pairs · Concordances · Linguistics software · Some_relatively_basic_text_processing · Word embeddings · Semantic similarity

Unsorted - Contextualism · · Text summarization · Accent, Dialect, Language · Pidgin, Creole · Natural language typology · Writing_systems · Typography, orthography · Digraphs, ligatures, dipthongs · More linguistic terms and descriptions · Phonetic scripts

Plots and visualisations


Waveform view.



This article/section is a stub — some half-sorted notes, not necessarily checked, not necessarily correct. Feel free to ignore, or tell me about it.

An intonograph seems to sometimes point at a device used for speech analysis (a little more specific than e.g. abusing a visicorder), and the plots it made are called intonograms.

...but most things called intonograms seem to be prints of computer analyses.

Most of them will have an estimation of fundamental frequency of speech.

Other things they may show on the same plot tends to include the waveform, and may include intensity, and e.g. time markers for manual annotation.

It seems to now indicate any sort of plot that shows a combination of information, so e.g. praat's Sound view (and perhaps Manipulation view) would probably qualify.

Simple modelling of speech

source-filter model

The source-filter model names the model/attitude that we can get a good approximation of speech with

  • either a tone at the fundamental pitch (for vowels) or noise (for consonants)
  • a few filters to imitate the formants