Phraseology, Collocations, Distributional Similarity

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Figures of speech

Figures of speech in storytelling and rhetoric

Tropes

Schemes

Figures as speech as sayings

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Substituted phrases and/or double-meaninged phrases

Substituted phrases

Euphemism replaces a words/phrases, with others while preserving meaning.

Typically the replacement is more figurative, regularly metaphor.

The intent is often to say saying something without saying it directly, for reasons like:

softening emotional blows (e.g. passed away instead of died),
avoiding implications, often doubletalk (e.g. downsizing meaning firing a bunch of people, collateral damage meaning civilians we didn't really mean to kill, special interrogation meaning torture)
avoid rude sounding words (pretty much any word for toilet, including toilet itself originally, is a fairly polite reference for the place where we poop),
tact to avoid potential offense (student is not working to his full potential, developing countries)
but probably the most fun and thereby the most common is hinting at dirty deeds. To the point where any unknown phrase, particular in the form <verb>ing the <adjective>d <noun>, potentially makes us giggle.
and powerful sounding nouns are otfen business bullshit[1]


A dysphemism and cacophemism replaces a word/phrase with a more offensive one, say, Manson-Nixon line for Mason–Dixon line.


Cacoponism refers to the more blatant and intentionally offensive variation.



Multiple meanings

A double entendre is a phrase/sentence that can in be interpreted in different ways - and mostly cases where at least one is dirty. The extra meaning is intentionally there, the words themselves often don't hint at the second meaning, it comes from context and both parties thinking the same thing - a complicitness.

If you go looking you can find a lot of unintentional ones, like things you can "that's what she said" to.


A single entendre is mostly used to point out when people didn't quite manage to make their entendre double, and mainly manage a single vaguely vulgar meaning.


Innuendo uses language to allude to additional meaning, yet with a wording that leaves some plausible deniability (without that deniability it would be clear insinuation).

Innuenndo can be fun and good natured, but is also frequently used in a disparaging way, or to plant seeds of doubt about someone, their reputation, or such (see e.g. the early stages of many american presidential runs).


Innuendo, like euphemisms, does not have to be sexual, though this perhaps is as common as it is assumed.

Double entendre does not have to be intentional, innuendo (and single entendre) is.


Puns use either multiple meanings of a word, or similar-sounding words, for humour or rhetorical effect. We mostly know them for the really bad ones.


See also:

Phraseology

Phraseology studies and describes the context in which a word is used, a mainly descriptive approach.


Concepts in the area

Collocations

MWEs

Unsorted

Figure of speech

Circumlocution

Computational aspects

Phrase chunking, phrase identification

Collocations, Distributional Similarity

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Collocations are statistically ideosyncratic sequences (in terms of mutual expectancy), i.e. are series of words that occur more often than you would expect from just chance. This often points to idiosyncratic and/or non-compositional use of language, such as MWEs and common grammatic patterns.


Distributional similarity can refer to analysis to bring those out, often for the goal of figuring the relevant semantics.

Compounds

http://wiki.apertium.org/wiki/Compounds

Named entities

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Named entities usually refer to finding/recognizing phrases that are (used as) nominal compounds.

Systems often deal with entities such as persons, organizations, locations, named objects, and such, particularly when they can work from known lists.

The same systems often also extract simple references such as times and dates, quantities such as monetary values and percentages.


Specific tasks in the area may be referred to / known as:

  • Entity Extraction
  • Entity Identification (EI)
  • Named Entity Extraction (NEE)
  • Named Entity Recognition (NER)
  • Named Entity Classification (NEC)
  • ...and others.


See also